[Translated by the Rev. S. Thelwall.]
1. A Strain of Jonah the Prophet.
After the living, aye--enduring death
Of Sodom and Gomorrah; after fires
Penal, attested by time-frosted plains
Of ashes; after fruitless apple-growths,
5 Born but to feed the eye; after the death
Of sea and brine, both in like fate involved;
While whatsoe'er is human still retains
In change corporeal its penal badge: 
A city--Nineveh--by stepping o'er
10 The path of justice and of equity,
On her own head had well-nigh shaken down
More fires of rain supernal. For what dread 
Dwells in a mind subverted? Commonly
Tokens of penal visitations prove
15 All vain where error holds possession. Still,
Kindly and patient of our waywardness,
And slow to punish, the Almighty Lord
Will launch no shaft of wrath, unless He first
Admonish and knock oft at hardened hearts,
20 Rousing with mind august presaging seers.
For to the merits of the Ninevites
The Lord had bidden Jonah to foretell
Destruction; but he, conscious that He spare;
The subject, and remits to suppliants
25 The dues of penalty, and is to good
Ever inclinable, was loth to face
That errand; lest he sing his seerly strain
In vain, and peaceful issue of his threats
Ensue. His counsel presently is flight:
30 (If, howsoe'er, there is at all the power
God to avoid, and shun the Lord's right hand
'Neath whom the whole orb trembles and is held
In check: but is there reason in the act
Which in  his saintly heart the prophet dares?)
35 On the beach-lip, over against the shores
Of the Cilicians, is a city poised, 
Far-famed for trusty port--Joppa her name.
Thence therefore Jonah speeding in a barque
Seeks Tarsus,  through the signal providence
40 Of the same God;  nor marvel is't, I ween,
If, fleeing from the Lord upon the lands,
He found Him in the waves. For suddenly
A little cloud had stained the lower air
With fleecy wrack sulphureous, itself 
45 By the wind's seed excited: by degrees,
Bearing a brood globose, it with the sun
Cohered, and with a train caliginous
Shut in the cheated day. The main becomes
The mirror of the sky; the waves are dyed so
50 With black encirclement; the upper air
Down rushes into darkness, and the sea
Uprises; nought of middle space is left;
While the clouds touch the waves, and the waves all
Are mingled by the bluster of the winds
55 In whirling eddy. 'Gainst the renegade,
'Gainst Jonah, diverse frenzy joined to rave,
While one sole barque did all the struggle breed
'Twixt sky and surge. From this side and from that
Pounded she reels; 'neath each wave-breaking blow
60 The forest of her tackling trembles all;
As, underneath, her spinal length of keel,
Staggered by shock on shock, all palpitates;
And, from on high, her labouring mass of yard
Creaks shuddering; and the tree-like mast itself
65 Bends to the gale, misdoubting to be riven.
Meantime the rising  clamour of the crew
Tries every chance for barque's and dear life's sake:
To pass from hand to hand  the tardy coils
To tighten the girth's noose: straitly to bind
70 The tiller's struggles; or, with breast opposed,
T' impel reluctant curves. Part, turn by turn,
With foremost haste outbale the reeking well
Of inward sea. The wares and cargo all
They then cast headlong, and with losses seek
75 Their perils to subdue. At every crash
Of the wild deep rise piteous cries; and out
They stretch their hands to majesties of gods,
Which gods are none; whom might of sea and sky
Fears not, nor yet the less from off their poops
80 With angry eddy sweeping sinks them down.
Unconscious of all this, the guilty one
'Neath the poop's hollow arch was making sleep
Re-echo stertorous with nostril wide
Inflated: whom, so soon as he who guides
85 The functions of the wave-dividing prow
Saw him sleep-bound in placid peace, and proud
In his repose, he, standing o'er him, shook,
And said, "Why sing'st, with vocal nostril, dreams,
In such a crisis? In so wild a whirl,
90 Why keep'st thou only harbour? Lo! the wave
Whelms us, and our one hope is in the gods.
Thou also, whosoever is thy god,
Make vows, and, pouring prayers on bended knee,
Win o'er thy country's Sovran!"
Then they vote
95 To learn by lot who is the culprit, who
The cause of storm; nor does the lot belie
Jonah: whom then they ask, and ask again,
"Who? whence? who in the world? from what abode,
What people, hail'st thou?" He avows himself
100 A servant, and an over-timid one,
Of God, who raised aloft the sky, who based
The earth, who corporally fused the whole:
A renegade from Him he owns himself,
And tells the reason. Rigid turned they all
105 With dread. "What grudge, then, ow'st thou us? What now
Will follow? By what deed shall we appease
The main?" For more and far more swelling grew
The savage surges. Then the seer begins
Words prompted by the Spirit of the Lord: 
110 "Lo! I your tempest am; I am the sum
Of the world's  madness: 'tis in me," he says,
"That the sea rises, and the upper air
Down rushes; land in me is far, death near,
And hope in God is none! Come, headlong hurl
115 Your cause of bane: lighten your ship, and cast
This single mighty burden to the main,
A willing prey!" But they--all vainly!--strive
Homeward to turn their course; for helm refused
To suffer turning, and the yard's stiff poise
120 Willed not to change. At last unto the Lord
They cry: "For one soul's sake give us not o'er
Unto death's maw, nor let us be besprent
With righteous blood, if thus Thine own right hand
Leadeth." And from the eddy's depth a whale
125 Outrising on the spot, scaly with shells, 
Unravelling his body's train, 'gan urge
More near the waves, shocking the gleaming brine,
Seizing--at God's command--the prey; which, rolled
From the poop's summit prone, with slimy jaws
130 He sucked; and into his long belly sped
The living feast; and swallowed, with the man,
The rage of sky and main. The billowy waste
Grows level, and the ether's gloom dissolves;
The waves on this side, and the blasts on that,
135 Are to their friendly mood restored; and, where
The placid keel marks out a path secure,
White traces in the emerald furrow bloom.
The sailor then does to the reverend Lord
Of death make grateful offering of his fear; 
140 Then enters friendly ports.
Jonah the seer
The while is voyaging, in other craft
Embarked, and cleaving 'neath the lowest waves
A wave: his sails the intestines of the fish,
Inspired with breath ferine; himself, shut in;
145 By waters, yet untouched; in the sea's heart
And yet beyond its reach; 'mid wrecks of fleets
Half-eaten, and men's carcasses dissolved
In putrid disintegrity: in life
Learning the process of his death; but still--
150 To be a sign hereafter of the Lord  --
A witness was he (in his very self), 
Not of destruction, but of death's repulse.
 These two lines, if this be their true sense, seem to refer to Lot's wife. But the grammar and meaning of this introduction are alike obscure.
 "Metus;" used, as in other places, of godly fear.
 Lit. "from," i.e., which, urged by a heart which is that of a saint, even though on this occasion it failed, the prophet dared.
 "Tarshish," Eng. ver.; perhaps Tartessus in Spain. For this question, and the "trustiness" of Joppa (now Jaffa) as a port, see Pusey on Jonah i. 3.
 Ejusdem per signa Dei.
 i.e., the cloud.
 Genitus (Oehler); geminus (Migne) ="twin clamour," which is not inapt.
 Mandare (Oehler). If this be the true reading, the rendering in the text seems to represent the meaning; for "mandare" with an accusative, in the sense of "to bid the tardy coils tighten the girth's noose," seems almost too gross a solecism for even so lax a Latinist as our present writer. Migne, however, reads mundare--to "clear" the tardy coils, i.e., probably from the wash and weed with which the gale was cloying them.
 Tunc Domini vates ingesta Spiritus infit. Of course it is a gross offence against quantity to make a genitive in "us" short, as the rendering in the text does. But a writer who makes the first syllable in "clamor" and the last syllable of gerunds in do short, would scarcely be likely to hesitate about taking similar liberties with a genitive of the so-called fourth declension. It is possible, it is true, to take "vates" and "Spiritus" as in apposition, and render, "Then the seer-Spirit of the Lord begins to utter words inspired," or "Then the seer-Spirit begins to utter the promptings of the Lord." But these renderings seem to accord less well with the ensuing words.
 i.e., apparently with shells which had gathered about him as he lay in the deep.
 This seems to be the sense of Oehler's "Nauta at tum Domino leti venerando timorem Sacrificat grates"--"grates" being in apposition with "timorem." But Migne reads: "Nautæ tum Domino læti venerando timorem Sacrificant grates:"-- "The sailors then do to the reverend Lord Gladly make grateful sacrifice of fear:" and I do not see that Oehler's reading is much better.
 Comp. Matt. xii. 38-41; Luke xi. 29, 30.
 These words are not in the original, but are inserted (I confess) to fill up the line, and avoid ending with an incomplete verse. If, however, any one is curious enough to compare the translation, with all its defects, with the Latin, he may be somewhat surprised to find how very little alteration or adaptation is necessary in turning verse into verse.
2. A Strain of Sodom.
Already had Almighty God wiped off
By vengeful flood (with waters all conjoined
Which heaven discharged on earth and the sea's plain 
Outspued) the times of the primeval age:
5 Had pledged Himself, while nether air should bring
The winters in their course, ne'er to decree,
By liquid ruin, retribution's due;
And had assigned, to curb the rains, the bow
Of many hues, sealing the clouds with band
10 Of purple and of green, Iris its name,
The rain-clouds' proper baldric. 
With mankind's second race impiety
Revives, and a new age of ill once more
Shoots forth; allotted now no more to showers
15 For ruin, but to fires: thus did the land
Of Sodom earn to be by glowing dews
Upburnt, and typically thus portend
The future end.  There wild voluptuousness
(Modesty's foe) stood in the room of law;
20 Which prescient guest would shun, and sooner choose
At Scythian or Busirian altar's foot
'Mid sacred rites to die, and, slaughtered, pour
His blood to Bebryx, or to satiate
Libyan palæstras, or assume new forms;
25 By virtue of Circæan cups, than lose
His outraged sex in Sodom. At heaven's gate
There knocked for vengeance marriages commit
With equal incest common 'mong a race
By nature rebels 'gainst themselves;  and hurts
30 Done to man's name and person equally.
But God, forewatching all things, at fix'd time
Doth judge the unjust; with patience tarrying
The hour when crime's ripe age--not any force
Of wrath impetuous--shall have circumscribed
35 The space for waiting. 
Now at length the day
Of vengeance was at hand. Sent from the host
Angelical, two, youths in form, who both
Were ministering spirits,  carrying
The Lord's divine commissions, come beneath
40 The walls of Sodom. There was dwelling Lot
A transplantation from a pious stock;
Wise, and a practicer of righteousness,
He was the only one to think on God:
As oft a fruitful tree is wont to lurk,
45 Guest-like, in forests wild. He, sitting then
Before the gate (for the celestials scarce
Had reached the ramparts), though he knew not them
Divine,  accosts them unsolicited,
Invites, and with ancestral honour greets;
50 And offers them, preparing to abide
Abroad, a hospice. By repeated prayers
He wins them; and then ranges studiously
The sacred pledges  on his board,  and quits 
His friends with courteous offices. The night
55 Had brought repose: alternate  dawn had chased
The night, and Sodom with her shameful law
Makes uproar at the doors. Lot, suppliant wise,
Withstands: "Young men, let not your new fed lust
Enkindle you to violate this youth! 
60 Whither is passion's seed inviting you?
To what vain end your lust? For such an end
No creatures wed: not such as haunt the fens;
Not stall-fed cattle; not the gaping brood
Subaqueous; nor they which, modulant
65 On pinions, hang suspended near the clouds;
Nor they which with forth-stretched body creep
Over earth's face. To conjugal delight
Each kind its kind doth owe: but female still
To all is wife; nor is there one that has
70 A mother save a female one. Yet now,
If youthful vigour holds it right  to waste
The flower of modesty, I have within
Two daughters of a nuptial age, in whom
Virginity is swelling in its bloom,
75 Already ripe for harvest--a desire
Worthy of men--which let your pleasure reap!
Myself their sire, I yield them; and will pay
For my guests' sake, the forfeit of my grief!"
Answered the mob insane: "And who art thou?
80 And what? and whence? to lord it over us,
And to expound us laws? Shall foreigner
Rule Sodom, and hurl threats? Now, then, thyself
For daughters and for guests shalt sate our greed!
One shall suffice for all!" So said, so done:
85 The frantic mob delays not. As, whene'er
A turbid torrent rolls with wintry tide,
And rushes at one speed through countless streams
Of rivers, if, just where it forks, some tree
Meets the swift waves (not long to stand, save while
90 By her root's force she shall avail to oppose
Her tufty obstacles), when gradually
Her hold upon the undermined soil
Is failing, with her bared stem she hangs,
And, with uncertain heavings to and fro,
95 Defers her certain fall; not otherwise
Lot in the mid-whirl of the dizzy mob
Kept nodding, now almost o'ercome. But power
Divine brings succour: the angelic youths,
Snatching him from the threshold, to his roof
100 Restore him; but upon the spot they mulct
Of sight the mob insane in open day,--
Fit augury of coming penalties!
Then they unlock the just decrees of God:
That penalty condign from heaven will fall
105 On Sodom; that himself had merited
Safety upon the count of righteousness.
"Gird thee, then, up to hasten hence thy flight,
And with thee to lead out what family
Thou hast: already we are bringing on
110 Destruction o'er the city." Lot with speed
Speaks to his sons-in-law; but their hard heart
Scorned to believe the warning, and at fear
Laughed. At what time the light attempts to climb
The darkness, and heaven's face wears double hue
115 From night and day, the youthful visitants
Were instant to outlead from Sodoma
The race Chaldæan,  and the righteous house
Consign to safety: "Ho! come, Lot! arise,
And take thy yokefellow and daughters twain,
120 And hence, beyond the boundaries be gone,
Preventing  Sodom's penalties!" And eke
With friendly hands they lead them trembling forth,
And then their final mandates give: "Save, Lot,
Thy life, lest thou perchance should will to turn
125 Thy retroverted gaze behind, or stay
The step once taken: to the mountain speed!"
Lot feared to creep the heights with tardy step,
Lest the celestial wrath-fires should o'ertake
And whelm him: therefore he essays to crave
130 Some other ports; a city small, to wit,
Which opposite he had espied. "Hereto,"
He said, "I speed my flight: scarce with its walls
'Tis visible; nor is it far, nor great."
They, favouring his prayer, safety assured
135 To him and to the city; whence the spot
Is known in speech barbaric by the name
Segor.  Lot enters Segor while the sun
Is rising,  the last sun, which glowing bears
To Sodom conflagration; for his rays
140 He had armed all with fire: beneath him spreads
An emulous gloom, which seeks to intercept
The light; and clouds combine to interweave
Their smoky globes with the confused sky:
Down pours a novel shower: the ether seethes
145 With sulphur mixt with blazing flames:  the air
Crackles with liquid heats exust. From hence
The fable has an echo of the truth
Amid its false, that the sun's progeny
Would drive his father's team; but nought availed
150 The giddy boy to curb the haughty steeds
Of fire: so blazed our orb: then lightning reft
The lawless charioteer, and bitter plaint
Transformed his sisters. Let Eridanus
See to it, if one poplar on his banks
155 Whitens, or any bird dons plumage there
Whose note old age makes mellow! 
Here they mourn
O'er miracles of metamorphosis
Of other sort. For, partner of Lot's flight,
His wife (ah me, for woman! even then 
160 Intolerant of law!) alone turned back
At the unearthly murmurs of the sky)
Her daring eyes, but bootlessly: not doomed
To utter what she saw! and then and there
Changed into brittle salt, herself her tomb
165 She stood, herself an image of herself,
Keeping an incorporeal form: and still
In her unsheltered station 'neath the heaven
Dures she, by rains unmelted, by decay
And winds unwasted; nay, if some strange hand
170 Deface her form, forthwith from her own store
Her wounds she doth repair. Still is she said
To live, and, 'mid her corporal change, discharge
With wonted blood her sex's monthly dues.
Gone are the men of Sodom; gone the glare
175 Of their unhallowed ramparts; all the house
Inhospitable, with its lords, is gone:
The champaign is one pyre; here embers rough
And black, here ash-heaps with hoar mould, mark out
The conflagration's course: evanished
180 Is all that old fertility  which Lot,
Seeing outspread before him,...
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
No ploughman spends his fruitless toil on glebes
Pitchy with soot: or if some acres there,
But half consumed, still strive to emulate
185 Autumn's glad wealth, pears, peaches, and all fruits
Promise themselves full easely  to the eye
In fairest bloom, until the plucker's hand
Is on them: then forthwith the seeming fruit
Crumbles to dust 'neath the bewraying touch,
190 And turns to embers vain.
Thus, therefore (sky
And earth entombed alike), not e'en the sea
Lives there: the quiet of that quiet sea
Is death!  --a sea which no wave animates
Through its anhealant volumes; which beneath
195 Its native Auster sighs not anywhere;
Which cannot from its depths one scaly race,
Or with smooth skin or cork-like fence encased,
Produce, or curled shell in single valve
Or double fold enclosed. Bitumen there
200 (The sooty reek of sea exust) alone,
With its own crop, a spurious harvest yields;
Which 'neath the stagnant surface vivid heat
From seething mass of sulphur and of brine
Maturing tempers, making earth cohere
205 Into a pitch marine.  At season due
The heated water's fatty ooze is borne
Up to the surface; and with foamy flakes
Over the level top a tawny skin
Is woven. They whose function is to catch
210 That ware put to, tilting their smooth skin down
With balance of their sides, to teach the film,
Once o'er the gunnel, to float in: for, lo!
Raising itself spontaneous, it will swim
Up to the edge of the unmoving craft;
215 And will, when pressed,  for guerdon large, ensure
Immunity from the defiling touch
Of weft which female monthly efflux clothes.
Behold another portent notable,
Fruit of that sea's disaster: all things cast
220 Therein do swim: gone is its native power
For sinking bodies: if, in fine, you launch
A torch's lightsome  hull (where spirit serves
For fire) therein, the apex of the flame
Will act as sail; put out the flame, and 'neath
225 The waters will the light's wrecks ruin go!
Such Sodom's and Gomorrah's penalties,
For ages sealed as signs before the eyes
Of unjust nations, whose obdurate hearts
God's fear have quite forsaken,  will them teach
230 To reverence heaven-sanctioned rights,  and lift
Their gaze unto one only Lord of all.
 Maris æquor.
 See Gen. ix. 21, 22; x. 8-17.
 Comp. 2 Pet. iii. 5-14.
 The expression, "sinners against their own souls," in Num. xvi. 38--where, however, the LXX. have a very different version--may be compared with this; as likewise Prov. viii. 36.
 Whether the above be the sense of this most obscure triplet I will not presume to determine. It is at least (I hope) intelligible sense. But that the reader may judge for himself whether he can offer any better, I subjoin the lines, which form a sentence alone, and therefore can be judged of without their context:-- "Tempore sed certo Deus omnia prospectulatus, Judicat injustos, patiens ubi criminis ætas Cessandi spatium vis nulla coëgerit iræ."
 Comp. Heb. i. 14. It may be as well here to inform the reader once for all that prosody as well as syntax is repeatedly set at defiance in these metrical fragments; and hence, of course, arise some of the chief difficulties in dealing with them.
 "Divinos;" i.e., apparently "superhuman," as everything heavenly is.
 Of hospitality--bread and salt, etc.
 "Mensa;" but perhaps "mensæ" may be suggested--"the sacred pledges of the board."
 "Dispungit," which is the only verb in the sentence, and refers both to pia pignora and to amicos. I use "quit" in the sense in which we speak of "quitting a debtor," i.e., giving him his full due; but the two lines are very hard, and present (as in the case of those before quoted) a jumble of words without grammar; "pia pignora mensa Officiisque probis studio dispungit amicos;" which may be somewhat more literally rendered than in our text, thus: "he zealously discharges" (i.e., fulfils) "his sacred pledges" (i.e., the promised hospitality which he had offered them) "with (a generous) board, and discharges" (i.e., fulfils his obligations to) "his friends with honourable courtesies."
 Altera =alterna. But the statement differs from Gen. xix. 4.
 "Istam juventam," i.e., the two "juvenes" (ver. 31) within.
 "Fas" =hosion, morally right; distinct from "jus" or "licitum."
 i.e., Lot's race or family, which had come from "Ur of the Chaldees." See Gen. xi. 26, 27, 28.
 I use "preventing" in its now unusual sense of "anticipating the arrival of."
 Segor in the LXX., "Zoar" in Eng. ver.
 "Simul exoritur sol." But both the LXX. and the Eng. ver. say the sun was risen when Lot entered the city.
 So Oehler and Migne. But perhaps we may alter the pointing slightly, and read:-- "Down pours a novel shower, sulphur mixt With blazing flames: the ether seethes: the air Crackles with liquid exust."
 The story of Phaëthon and his fate is told in Ov., Met., ii. 1-399, which may be compared with the present piece. His two sisters were transformed into white poplars, according to some; alders, according to others. See Virg., Æn., x. 190 sqq., Ec., vi. 62 sqq. His half-brother (Cycnus or Cygnus) was turned into a swan: and the scene of these transformations is laid by Ovid on the banks of the Eridanus (the Po). But the fable is variously told; and it has been suggested that the groundwork of it is to be found rather in the still-standing of the sun recorded in Joshua.
 i.e., as she had been before in the case of Eve. See Gen. iii. 1 sqq.
 I have hazarded the bold conjecture--which I see others (Pamelius at all events) had hazarded before me--that "feritas" is used by our author as ="fertilitas." The word, of course, is very incorrectly formed etymologically; but etymology is not our author's forte apparently. It will also be seen that there is seemingly a gap at this point, or else some enormous mistake, in the mss. An attempt has been made (see Migne) to correct it, but not a very satisfactory one. For the common reading, which gives two lines, "Occidit illa prior feritas, quam prospiciens Loth Nullus arat frustra piceas fuligine glebas," which are evidently entirely unconnected with one another, it is proposed to read, "Occidit illa prior feritas, quam prospiciens Loth, Deseruisse pii fertur commercia fratris. Nullas arat," etc. This use of "fratris" in a wide sense may be justified from Gen. xiii. 8 (to which passage, with its immediate context, there seems to be a reference, whether we adopt the proposed correction or no), and similar passages in Holy Writ. But the transition is still abrupt to the "nullus arat," etc.; and I prefer to leave the passage as it is, without attempting to supply the hiatus.
 This use of "easely" as a dissyllable is justifiable from Spenser.
 This seems to be the sense, but the Latin is somewhat strange: "mors est maris illa quieti," i.e., illa (quies) maris quieti mors est. The opening lines of "Jonah" (above) should be compared with this passage and its context.
 Inque picem dat terræ hærere marinam.
 "Pressum" (Oehler); "pretium" (Migne): "it will yield a prize, namely, that," etc.
 Oehler's pointing is disregarded.
 "De cælo jura tueri;" possibly "to look for laws from heaven."
In the beginning did the Lord create
The heaven and earth:  for formless was the land, 
And hidden by the wave, and God immense 
O'er the vast watery plains was hovering,
5 While chaos and black darkness shrouded all:
Which darkness, when God bade be from the pole 
Disjoined, He speaks, "Let there be light;" and all
In the clear world  was bright. Then, when the Lord
The first day's work had finished, He formed
10 Heaven's axis white with nascent clouds: the deep
Immense receives its wandering  shores, and draws
The rivers manifold with mighty trains.
The third dun light unveiled earth's  face, and soon
(Its name assigned  ) the dry land's story 'gins:
15 Together on the windy champaigns rise
The flowery seeds, and simultaneously
Fruit-bearing boughs put forth procurvant arms.
The fourth day, with  the sun's lamp generates
The moon, and moulds the stars with tremulous light
20 Radiant: these elements it  gave as signs
To th' underlying world,  to teach the times
Which, through their rise and setting, were to change.
Then, on the fifth, the liquid  streams receive
Their fish, and birds poise in the lower air
25 Their pinions many-hued. The sixth, again,
Supples the ice-cold snakes into their coils,
And over the whole fields diffuses herds
Of quadrupeds; and mandate gave that all
Should grow with multiplying seed, and roam
30 And feed in earth's immensity.
When power divine by mere command arranged,
Observing that things mundane still would lack
A ruler, thus It  speaks: "With utmost care,
Assimilated to our own aspect, 
35 Make We a man to reign in the whole orb."
And him, although He with a single word 
Could have compounded, yet Himself did deign
To shape him with His sacred own right hand,
Inspiring his dull breast from breast divine.
40 Whom when He saw formed in a likeness such
As is His own, He measures how he broods
Alone on gnawing cares. Straight way his eyes
With sleep irriguous He doth perfuse;
That from his left rib woman softlier
45 May formed be, and that by mixture twin
His substance may add firmness to her limbs.
To her the name of "Life"--which is called "Eve"  --
Is given: wherefore sons, as custom is,
Their parents leave, and, with a settled home,
50 Cleave to their wives.
The seventh came, when God
At His works' end did rest, decreeing it
Sacred unto the coming ages' joys.
Straightway--the crowds of living things deployed
Before him--Adam's cunning skill (the gift
55 Of the good Lord) gives severally to all
The name which still is permanent. Himself,
And, joined with him, his Eve, God deigns address
"Grow, for the times to come, with manifold
Increase, that with your seed the pole and earth 
60 Be filled; and, as Mine heirs, the varied fruits
Pluck ye, which groves and champaigns render you,
From their rich turf." Thus after He discoursed,
In gladsome court  a paradise is strewn,
And looks towards the rays of th' early sun. 
65 These joys among, a tree with deadly fruits,
Breeding, conjoined, the taste of life and death,
Arises. In the midst of the demesne 
Flows with pure tide a stream, which irrigates
Fair offsprings from its liquid waves, and cuts
70 Quadrified paths from out its bubbling fount
Here wealthy Phison, with auriferous waves,
Swells, and with hoarse tide wears  conspicuous gems,
This prasinus,  that glowing carbuncle, 
By name; and raves, transparent in its shoals,
75 The margin of the land of Havilath.
Next Gihon, gliding by the Æthiops,
Enriches them. The Tigris is the third,
Adjoined to fair Euphrates, furrowing
Disjunctively with rapid flood the land
80 Of Asshur. Adam, with his faithful wife,
Placed here as guard and workman, is informed
By such the Thunderer's  speech: "Tremble ye not
To pluck together the permitted fruits
Which, with its leafy bough, the unshorn grove
85 Hath furnished; anxious only lest perchance
Ye cull the hurtful apple,  which is green
With a twin juice for functions several."
And, no less blind meantime than Night herself,
Deep night 'gan hold them, nor had e'en a robe
90 Covered their new-formed limbs.
Amid these haunts,
And on mild berries reared, a foamy snake,
Surpassing living things in sense astute,
Was creeping silently with chilly coils.
He, brooding over envious lies instinct
95 With gnawing sense, tempts the soft heart beneath
The woman's breast: "Tell me, why shouldst thou dread
The apple's  happy seeds? Why, hath not
All known fruits hallowed?  Whence if thou be prompt
To cull the honeyed fruits, the golden world 
100 Will on its starry pole return."  But she
Refuses, and the boughs forbidden fears
To touch. But yet her breast 'gins be o'er come
With sense infirm. Straightway, as she at length
With snowy tooth the dainty morsels bit,
105 Stained with no cloud the sky serene up-lit!
Then taste, instilling lure in honeyed jaws,
To her yet uninitiated lord
Constrained her to present the gift; which he
No sooner took, then--night effaced!:--their eyes
110 Shone out serene in the resplendent world. 
When, then, they each their body bare espied,
And when their shameful parts they see, with leaves
Of fig they shadow them.
By chance, beneath
The sun's now setting light, they recognise
115 The sound of the Lord's voice, and, trembling, haste
To bypaths. Then the Lord of heaven accosts
The mournful Adam: "Say, where now thou art."
Who suppliant thus answers: "Thine address,
O Lord, O Mighty One, I tremble at,
120 Beneath my fearful heart; and, being bare,
I faint with chilly dread." Then said the Lord:
"Who hath the hurtful fruits, then, given you?"
"This woman, while she tells me how her eyes
With brilliant day promptly perfused were,
125 And on her dawned the liquid sky serene,
And heaven's sun and stars, o'ergave them me!"
Forthwith God's anger frights perturbed Eve,
While the Most High inquires the authorship
Of the forbidden act. Hereon she opes
130 Her tale: "The speaking serpent's suasive words
I harboured, while the guile and bland request
Misled me: for, with venoms viperous
His words inweaving, stories told he me
Of those delights which should all fruits excel."
135 Straightway the Omnipotent the dragon's deeds
Condemns, and bids him be to all a sight
Unsightly, monstrous; bids him presently
With grovelling beast to crawl; and then to bite
And chew the soil; while war should to all time
140 'Twixt human senses and his tottering self
Be waged, that he might creep, crestfallen, prone,
Behind the legs of men,  --that while he glides
Close on their heels they may down-trample him.
The woman, sadly caught by guileful words,
145 Is bidden yield her fruit with struggle hard,
And bear her husband's yoke with patient zeal. 
"But thou, to whom the sentence  of the wife
(Who, vanquished, to the dragon pitiless
Yielded) seemed true, shalt through long times deplore
150 Thy labour sad; for thou shalt see, instead
Of wheaten harvest's seed, the thistle rise,
And the thorn plenteously with pointed spines:
So that, with weary heart and mournful breast,
Full many sighs shall furnish anxious food; 
155 Till, in the setting hour of coming death,
To level earth, whence thou thy body draw'st,
Thou be restored." This done, the Lord bestows
Upon the trembling pair a tedious life;
And from the sacred gardens far removes
160 Them downcast, and locates them opposite,
And from the threshold bars them by mid fire,
Wherein from out the swift heat is evolved
A cherubim,  while fierce the hot point glows,
And rolls enfolding flames. And lest their limbs
165 With sluggish cold should be benumbed, the Lord
Hides flayed from cattle's flesh together sews,
With vestures warm their bare limbs covering.
When, therefore, Adam--now believing--felt
(By wedlock taught) his manhood, he confers
170 On his loved wife the mother's name; and, made
Successively by scions twain a sire,
Gives names to stocks  diverse: Caïn the first
Hath for his name, to whom is Abel joined.
The latter's care tended the harmless sheep;
175 The other turned the earth with curved plough.
These, when in course of time  they brought their gifts
To Him who thunders, offered--as their sense
Prompted them--fruits unlike. The elder one
Offered the first-fruits  of the fertile glebes:
180 The other pays his vows with gentle lamb,
Bearing in hand the entrails pure, and fat
Snow-white; and to the Lord, who pious vows
Beholds, is instantly acceptable.
Wherefore with anger cold did Cain glow; 
185 With whom God deigns to talk, and thus begins:
"Tell Me, if thou live rightly, and discern
Things hurtful, couldst thou not then pass thine age
Pure from contracted guilt? Cease to essay
With gnawing sense thy brother's ruin, who,
190 Subject to thee as lord, his neck shall yield."
Not e'en thus softened, he unto the fields
Conducts his brother; whom when overta'en
In lonely mead he saw, with his twin palms
Bruising his pious throat, he crushed life out.
195 Which deed the Lord espying from high heaven,
Straitly demands "where Abel is on earth? "
He says "he will not as his brother's guard
Be set." Then God outspeaks to him again:
"Doth not the sound of his blood's voice, sent up
200 To Me, ascend unto heaven's lofty pole?
Learn, therefore, for so great a crime what doom
Shall wait thee. Earth, which with thy kinsman's blood
Hath reeked but now, shall to thy hateful hand
Refuse to render back the cursed seeds
205 Entrusted her; nor shall, if set with herbs,
Produce her fruit: that, torpid, thou shalt dash
Thy limbs against each other with much fear."......
 Immensus. See note on the word in the fragment "Concerning the Cursing of the Heathen's Gods."
 "Errantia;" so called, probably, either because they appear to move as ships pass them, or because they may be said to "wander" by reason of the constant change which they undergo from the action of the sea, and because of the shifting nature of their sands.
 "God called the dry land Earth:" Gen. i. 10.
 i.e., "together with;" it begets both sun and moon.
 i.e., "the fourth day."
 Or, "lucid"--liquentia.
 i.e., "Power Divine."
 So Milton and Shakespeare.
 As (see above, l. 31) He had all other things.
 See Gen. iii. 20, with the LXX., and the marg. in the Eng. ver.
 The "gladsome court"--"læta aula"--seems to mean Eden, in which the garden is said to have been planted. See Gen. ii. 8.
 i.e., eastward. See the last reference.
 Ædibus in mediis.
 Terit. So Job (xiv. 19), "The waters wear the stones."
 "Onyx," Eng. ver. See the following piece, l. 277.
 "Bdellium," Eng. Ver.; anthrax, LXX.
 Comp. Ps. xxix. 3, especially in "Great Bible" (xxviii. 3 in LXX.)
 "Numquid poma Deus non omnia nota sacravit?"
 The writer, supposing it to be night (see 88, 89), seems to mean that the serpent hinted that the fruit would instantly dispel night and restore day. Compare the ensuing lines.
 "Servitiumque sui studio perferre mariti;" or, perhaps, "and drudge in patience at her husband's beck."
 "Sententia:" her sentence, or opinion, as to the fruit and its effects.
 Or, "That with heart-weariness and mournful breast Full many sighs may furnish anxious food."
 The writer makes "cherubim"--or "cherubin"--singular. I have therefore retained his mistake. What the "hot point"--"calidus apex"--is, is not clear. It may be an allusion to the "flaming sword" (see Gen. iii. 24); or it may mean the top of the flame.
 Or, "origins"--"orsis"--because Cain and Abel were original types, as it were, of two separate classes of men.
 "Perpetuo;" "in process of time," Eng. ver.; meth' hemeras, LXX. in Gen. iv. 3.
 Quæ prosata fuerant. But, as Wordsworth remarks on Gen. iv., we do not read that Cain's offerings were first-fruits even.
 Quod propter gelida Cain incanduit ira. If this, which is Oehler's and Migne's reading, be correct, the words gelida and incanduit seem to be intentionally contrasted, unless incandescere be used here in a supposed sense of "growing white," "turning pale." Urere is used in Latin of heat and cold indifferently. Calida would, of course, be a ready emendation; but gelida has the advantage of being far more startling.
4. A Strain of the Judgment of the Lord.
(Author Uncertain.) 
Who will for me in fitting strain adapt
Field-haunting muses? and with flowers will grace
The spring-tide's rosy gales? And who will give
The summer harvest's heavy stalks mature?
5 And to the autumn's vines their swollen grapes?
Or who in winter's honour will commend
The olives, ever-peaceful? and will ope
Waters renewed, even at their fountainheads?
And cut from waving grass the leafy flowers?
10 Forthwith the breezes of celestial light
I will attune. Now be it granted me
To meet the lightsome  muses! to disclose
The secret rivers on the fluvial top
Of Helicon,  and gladsome woods that grow
15 'Neath other star.  And simultaneously
I will attune in song the eternal flames;
Whence the sea fluctuates with wave immense:
What power  moves the solid lands to quake;
And whence the golden light first shot its rays
20 On the new world; or who from gladsome clay
Could man have moulded; whence in empty world 
Our race could have upgrown; and what the greed
Of living which each people so inspires;
What things for ill created are; or what
25 Death's propagation; whence have rosy wreaths
Sweet smell and ruddy hue; what makes the vine
Ferment in gladsome grapes away; and makes
Full granaries by fruit of slender stalks
distended be; or makes the tree grow ripe
30 'Mid ice, with olives black; who gives to seeds
Their increments of vigour various;
And with her young's soft shadowings protects
The mother. Good it is all things to know
Which wondrous are in nature, that it may
35 Be granted us to recognise through all
The true Lord, who light, seas, sky, earth prepared,
And decked with varied star the new-made world; 
And first bade beasts and birds to issue forth;
And gave the ocean's waters to be stocked
40 With fish; and gathered in a mass the sands,
With living creatures fertilized. Such strains
With stately  muses will I spin, and waves
Healthful will from their fountainheads disclose:
And may this strain of mine the gladsome shower
45 Catch, which from placid clouds doth come, and flows
Deeply and all unsought into men's souls,
And guide it into our new-fumed lands
In copious rills. 
Now come: if any one
Still ignorant of God, and knowing naught
50 Of life to come,  would fain attain to touch
The care-effacing living nymph, and through
The swift waves' virtue his lost life repair,
And 'scape the penalties of flame eterne, 
And rather win the guerdons of the life
55 To come, let such remember God is One,
Alone the object of our prayers; who 'neath
His threshold hath the whole world poised; Himself
Eternally abiding, and to be
Alway for aye; holding the ages  all;
60 Alone, before all ages;  unbegotten,
Limitless God; who holds alone His seat
Supernal; supereminent alone
Above high heavens; omnipotent alone;
Whom all things do obey; who for Himself
65 Formed, when it pleased Him, man for aye; and gave
Him to be pastor of beasts tame, and lord
Of wild; who by a word  could stretch forth heaven;
And with a word could solid earth suspend;
And quicklier than word  had the seas wave
70 Disjoined;  and man's dear form with His own hands
Did love to mould; and furthermore did will
His own fair likeness  to exist in him;
And by His Spirit on his countenance
The breath  of life did breathe.
75 Of God, such guilt rashly t' incur! Beyond
The warning's range he was not ought to touch. 
One fruit illicit, whence he was to know
Forthwith how to discriminate alike
Evil and equity, God him forbade
80 To touch. What functions of the world  did God
Permit to man, and sealed the sweet sweet pledge
Of His own love! and jurisdiction gave
O'er birds, and granted him both deep and soil
To tame, and mandates useful did impart
85 Of dear salvation! 'Neath his sway He gave
The lands, the souls of flying things, the race
Feathered, and every race, or tame or wild,
Of beasts, and the sea's race, and monsterforms
Shapeless of swimming things. But since so soon
90 The primal man by primal crime transgressed
The law, and left the mandates of the Lord
(Led by a wife who counselled all the ills),
By death he 'gan to perish. Woman 'twas
Who sin's first ill committed, and (the law
95 Transgressed) deceived her husband. Eve, induced
By guile, the thresholds oped to death, and proved
To her own self, with her whole race as well,
A procreatrix of funereal woes.
Hence unanticipated wickedness,
100 Hence death, like seed, for aye, is scattered. Then
More frequent grew atrocious deed; and toil
More savage set the corrupt orb astir:
(This lure the crafty serpent spread, inspired
By envy's self:) then peoples more invent
105 Practices of ill deeds; and by ill deeds
Gave birth to seeds of wickedness.
The only Lord, whose is the power supreme.
Who o'er the heights the summits holds of heaven
Supreme, and in exalted regions dwells
110 In lofty light for ages, mindful too
Of present time, and of futurity
Prescient beforehand, keeps the progeny
Of ill-desert, and all the souls which move
By reason's force much-erring man--nor less
115 Their tardy bodies governs He--against
The age decreed, so soon as, stretched in death,
Men lay aside their ponderous limbs, and light
As air, shall go, their earthly bonds undone,
And take in diverse parts their proper spheres
120 (But some He bids be forthwith by glad gales
Recalled to life, and be in secret kept
To wait the decreed law's awards, until
Their bodies with resuscitated limbs
Revive.  ) Then shall men 'gin to weigh the awards
125 Of their first life, and on their crime and faults
To think, and keep them for their penalties
Which will be far from death; and mindful grow
Of pious duties, by God's judgments taught;
To wait expectant for their penalty
130 And their descendants', fruit of their own crime;
Or else to live wholly the life of sheep, 
Without a name; and in God's ear, now deaf,
Pour unavailing weeping. Shall not God
Almighty, 'neath whose law are all things ruled,
135 Be able after death life to restore?
Or is there ought which the creation's Lord
Unable seems to do? If, darkness chased,
He could outstretch the light, and could compound
All the world's mass by a word suddenly,
140 And raise by potent voice all things from nought,
Why out of somewhat  could He not compound
The well-known shape which erst had been, which He
Had moulded formerly; and bid the form
Arise assimilated to Himself
145 Again? Since God's are all things, earth the more
Gives Him all back; for she will, when He bids,
Unweave whate'er she woven had before.
If one, perhaps, laid on sepulchral pyre,
The flame consumed; or one in its blind waves
150 The ocean have dismembered; if of one
The entrails have, in hunger, satisfied
The fishes; or on any's limbs wild beasts
Have fastened cruel death; or any's blood,
His body reft by birds, unhid have lain:
155 Yet shall they not wrest from the mighty Lord
His latest dues. Need is that men appear
Quickened from death 'fore God, and at His bar
Stand in their shapes resumed. Thus arid seeds
Are drops into the vacant lands, and deep
160 In the fixt furrows die and rot: and hence
Is not their surface  animated soon
With stalks repaired? and do they  not grow strong
And yellow with the living grains? and, rich
With various usury,  new harvests rise
165 In mass? The stars all set, and, born again,
Renew their sheen; and day dies with its light
Lost in dense night; and now night wanes herself
As light unveils creation presently;
And now another and another day
170 Rises from its own stars; and the sun sets,
Bright as it is with splendour--bearing light;
Light perishes when by the coming eve
The world  is shaded; and the phoenix lives
By her own soot  renewed, and presently
175 Rises, again a bird, O wondrous sight!
After her burnings! The bare tree in time
Shoots with her leaves; and once more are her boughs
Curved by the germen of the fruits.
The world  throughout is trembling at God's voice,
180 And deeply moved are the high air's powers, 
Then comes a crash unwonted, then ensue
Heaven's mightiest murmurs, on the approach of God,
The whole world's  Judge! His countless ministers
Forthwith conjoin their rushing march, and God
185 With majesty supernal fence around.
Angelic bands will from the heaven descend
To earth; all, God's host, whose is faculty
Divine; in form and visage spirits all
Of virtue: in them fiery vigour is;
190 Rutilant are their bodies; heaven's might
Divine about them flashes; the whole orb
Hence murmurs; and earth, trembling to her depths
(Or whatsoe'er her bulk is  ), echoes back
The roar, parturient of men, whom she,
195 Being bidden, will with grief upyield.  All stand
In wonderment. At last disturbed are
The clouds, and the stars move and quake from height
Of sudden power.  When thus God comes, with voice
Of potent sound, at once throughout all realms
200 The sepulchres are burst, and every ground
Outpours bones from wide chasms, and opening sand
Outbelches living peoples; to the hair 
The members cleave; the bones inwoven are
With marrow; the entwined sinews rule
205 The breathing bodies; and the veins 'gin throb
With simultaneously infused blood:
And, from their caves dismissed, to open day
Souls are restored, and seek to find again
Each its own organs, as at their own place
210 They rise. O wondrous faith! Hence every age
Shoots forth; forth shoots from ancient dust the host
Of dead. Regaining light, there rise again
Mothers, and sires, and high-souled youths, and boys,
And maids unwedded; and deceased old men
215 Stand by with living souls; and with the cries
Of babes the groaning orb resounds.  Then tribes
Various from their lowest seats will come:
Bands of the Easterns; those which earth's extreme
Sees; those which dwell in the downsloping clime
220 Of the mid-world, and hold the frosty star's
Riphæan citadels. Every colonist
Of every land stands frighted here: the boor;
The son of Atreus  with his diadem
Of royalty put off; the rich man mixt
225 Coequally in line with pauper peers.
Deep tremor everywhere: then groans the orb
With prayers; and peoples stretching forth their hands
Grow stupid with the din!
The Lord Himself
Seated, is bright with light sublime; and fire
230 Potent in all the Virtues  flashing shines.
And on His high-raised throne the Heavenly One
Coruscates from His seat; with martyrs hemmed
(A dazzling troop of men), and by His seers
Elect accompanied (whose bodies bright
235 Effulgent are with snowy stoles), He towers
Above them. And now priests in lustrous robes
Attend, who wear upon their marked  front
Wreaths golden-red; and all submissive kneel
And reverently adore. The cry of all
240 Is one: "O Holy, Holy Holy, God!"
To these  the Lord will mandate give, to range
The people in twin lines; and orders them
To set apart by number the depraved;
While such as have His biddings followed
245 With placid words He calls, and bids them, clad
With vigour--death quite conquered--ever dwell
Amid light's inextinguishable airs,
Stroll through the ancients' ever blooming realm,
Through promised wealth, through ever sunny swards,
250 And in bright body spend perpetual life.
A place there is, beloved of the Lord,
In Eastern coasts, where light is bright and clear,
And healthier blows the breeze; day is eterne,
Time changeless: 'tis a region set apart
255 By God, most rich in plains, and passing blest,
In the meridian  of His cloudless seat.
There gladsome the air, and is in light
Ever to be; soft is the wind, and breathes
Life-giving blasts; earth, fruitful with a soil
260 Luxuriant, bears all things; in the meads
Flowers shed their fragrance; and upon the plains
The purple--not in envy--mingles all
With golden-ruddy light. One gladsome flower,
With its own lustre clad, another clothes;
265 And here with many a seed the dewy fields
Are dappled, and the snowy tilths are crisped
With rosy flowers. No region happier
Is known in other spots; none which in look
Is fairer, or in honour more excels.
270 Never in flowery gardens are there born
Such lilies, nor do such upon our plains
Outbloom; nor does the rose so blush, what time,
New-born, 'tis opened by the breeze; nor is
The purple with such hue by Tyrian dye
275 Imbued. With coloured pebbles beauteous gleams
The gem: here shines the prasinus;  there glows
The carbuncle; and giant-emerald
Is green with grassy light. Here too are born
The cinnamons, with odoriferous twigs;
280 And with dense leaf gladsome amomum joins
Its fragrance. Here, a native, lies the gold
Of radiant sheen; and lofty groves reach heaven
In blooming time, and germens fruitfullest
Burden the living boughs. No glades like these
285 Hath Ind herself forth-stretcht; no tops so dense
Rears on her mount the pine; nor with a shade
So lofty-leaved is her cypress crisped;
Nor better in its season blooms her bough
In spring-tide. Here black firs on lofty peak
290 Bloom; and the only woods that know no hail
Are green eternally: no foliage falls;
At no time fails the flower. There, too, there blooms
A flower as red as Tarsine purple is:
A rose, I ween, it is (red hue it has,
295 An odour keen); such aspect on its leaves
It wears, such odour breathes. A tree it  stands,
With a new flower, fairest in fruits; a crop
Life-giving, dense, its happy strength does yield.
Rich honies with green cane their fragrance join,
300 And milk flows potable in runners full;
And with whate'er that sacred earth is green,
It all breathes life; and there Crete's healing gift 
Is sweetly redolent. There, with smooth tide,
Flows in the placid plains a fount: four floods
305 Thence water parted lands.  The garden robed
With flowers, I wot, keeps ever spring; no cold
Of wintry star varies the breeze; and earth,
After her birth-throes, with a kindlier blast
Repairs. Night there is none; the stars maintain
310 Their darkness; angers, envies, and dire greed
Are absent; and out-shut is fear, and cares
Driven from the threshold. Here the Evil One
Is homeless; he is into worthy courts
Out-gone, nor is't e'er granted him to touch
315 The glades forbidden. But here ancient faith
Rests in elect abode; and life here treads,
Joying in an eternal covenant;
And health  without a care is gladsome here
In placid tilths, ever to live and be
320 Ever in light.
Here whosoe'er hath lived
Pious, and cultivant of equity
And goodness; who hath feared the thundering God
With mind sincere; with sacred duteousness
Tended his parents; and his other life 
325 Spent ever crimeless; or who hath consoled
With faithful help a friend in indigence;
Succoured the over-toiling needy one,
As orphans' patron, and the poor man's aid;
Rescued the innocent, and succoured them
330 When press with accusation; hath to guests
His ample table's pledges given; hath done
All things divinely; pious offices
Enjoined; done hurt to none; ne'er coveted
Another's: such as these, exulting all
335 In divine praises, and themselves at once
Exhorting, raise their voices to the stars;
Thanksgivings to the Lord in joyous wise
They psalming celebrate; and they shall go
Their harmless way with comrade messengers.
340 When ended hath the Lord these happy gifts,
And likewise sent away to realms eterne
The just, then comes a pitiable crowd
Wailing its crimes; with parching tears it pours
All groans effusely, and attests  in acts
345 With frequent ululations. At the sight
Of flames, their merit's due, and stagnant pools
Of fire, wrath's weapons, they 'gin tremble all. 
Them an angelic host, upsnatching them,
Forbids to pray, forbids to pour their cries
350 (Too late!) with clamour loud: pardon withheld,
Into the lowest bottom they are hurled!
O miserable men! how oft to you
Hath Majesty divine made itself known!
The sounds of heaven ye have heard; have seen
355 Its lightnings; have experienced its rains
Assiduous; its ires of winds and hail!
How often nights and days serene do make
Your seasons--God's gifts--fruitful with fair yields!
Roses were vernal; the grain's summer-tide
360 Failed not; the autumn variously poured
Its mellow fruits; the rugged winter brake
The olives, icy though they were: 'twas God
Who granted all, nor did His goodness fail.
At God earth trembled; on His voice the deep
365 Hung, and the rivers trembling fled and left
Sands dry; and every creature everywhere
Confesses God! Ye (miserable men!)
Have heaven's Lord and earth's denied; and oft
(Horrible!) have God's heralds put to flight; 
370 And rather slain the just with slaughter fell;
And, after crime, fraud ever hath in you
Inhered. Ye then shall reap the natural fruit
Of your iniquitous sowing. That God is
Ye know; yet are ye wont to laugh at Him.
375 Into deep darkness ye shall go of fire
And brimstone; doomed to suffer glowing ires
In torments just.  God bids your bones descend
To  penalty eternal; go beneath
The ardour of an endless raging hell; 
380 Be urged, a seething mass, through rotant pools
Of flame; and into threatening flame He bids
The elements convert; and all heaven's fire
Descend in clouds.
Then greedy Tartarus
With rapid fire enclosed is; and flame
385 Is fluctuant within with tempest waves;
And the whole earth her whirling embers blends!
There is a flamy furrow; teeth acute
Are turned to plough it, and for all the years 
The fiery torrent will be armed: with force
390 Tartarean will the conflagrations gnash
Their teeth upon the world.  There are they scorched
In seething tide with course precipitate;
Hence flee; thence back are borne in sharp career;
The savage flame's ire meets them fugitive!
395 And now at length they own the penalty
Their own, the natural issue of their crime.
And now the reeling earth, by not a swain
Possest, is by the sea's profundity
Prest, at her farthest limit, where the sun
400 (His ray out-measured) divides the orb,
And where, when traversed is the world,  the stars
Are hidden. Ether thickens. O'er the light
Spreads sable darkness; and the latest flames
Stagnate in secret rills. A place there is
405 Whose nature is with sealed penalties
Fiery, and a dreadful marsh white-hot
With heats infernal, where, in furnaces
Horrific, penal deed roars loud, and seethes,
And, rushing into torments, is up-caught
410 By the flame's vortex wide; by savage wave
And surge the turbid sand all mingled is
With miry bottom. Hither will be sent,
Groaning, the captive crowd of evil ones,
And wickedness (the sinful body's train)
415 To burn! Great is the beating there of breasts,
By bellowing of grief accompanied;
Wild is the hissing of the flames, and thence
The ululation of the sufferers!
And flames, and limbs sonorous,  will outrise
420 Afar: more fierce will the fire burn; and up
To th' upper air the groaning will be borne.
Then human progeny its bygone deeds
Of ill will weigh; and will begin to stretch
Heavenward its palms; and then will wish to know
425 The Lord, whom erst it would not know, what time
To know Him had proved useful to them. There,
His life's excesses, handiworks unjust,
And crimes of savage mind, each will confess,
And at the knowledge of the impious deeds
430 Of his own life will shudder. And now first,
Whoe'er erewhile cherished ill thoughts of God;
Had worshipped stones unsteady, lyingly
Pretending to divinity; hath e'er
Made sacred to gore-stained images
435 Altars; hath voiceless pictured figures feared;
Hath slender shades of false divinity
Revered; whome'er ill error onward hath
Seduced; whoe'er was an adulterer,
Or with the sword had slain his sons; whoe'er
440 Had stalked in robbery; whoe'er by fraud
His clients had deferred; whoe'er with mind
Unfriendly had behaved himself, or stained
His palms with blood of men, or poison mixt
Wherein death lurked, or robed with wicked guise
445 His breast, or at his neighbour's ill, or gain
Iniquitous, was wont to joy; whoe'er
Committed whatsoever wickedness
Of evil deeds: him mighty heat shall rack,
And bitter fire; and these all shall endure,
450 In passing painful death, their punishment.
Thus shall the vast crowd lie of mourning men!
This oft as holy prophets sang of old,
And (by God's inspiration warned) oft told
The future, none ('tis pity!) none (alas!)
455 Did lend his ears. But God Almighty willed
His guerdons to be known, and His law's threats
'Mid multitudes of such like signs promulged.
He 'stablished them  by sending prophets more,
These likewise uttering words divine; and some,
460 Roused from their sleep, He bids go from their tombs
Forth with Himself, when He, His own tomb burst,
Had risen. Many 'wildered were, indeed,
To see the tombs agape, and in clear light
Corpses long dead appear; and, wondering
465 At their discourses pious, dulcet words!
Starward they stretch their palms at the mere sound, 
And offer God and so--victorious Christ
Their gratulating homage. Certain 'tis
That these no more re-sought their silent graves,
470 Nor were retained within earth's bowels shut; 
But the remaining host reposes now
In lowliest beds, until--time's circuit run--
That great day do arrive.
Now all of you
Own the true Lord, who alone makes this soul
475 Of ours to see His light  and can the same
(To Tartarus sent) subject to penalties;
And to whom all the power of life and death
Is open. Learn that God can do whate'er
He list; for 'tis enough for Him to will,
480 And by mere speaking He achieves the deed;
And Him nought plainly, by withstanding, checks.
He is my God alone, to whom I trust
With deepest senses. But, since death concludes
Every career, let whoe'er is to-day
485 Bethink him over all things in his mind.
And thus, while life remains, while 'tis allowed
To see the light and change your life, before
The limit of allotted age o'ertake
You unawares, and that last day, which  is
490 By death's law fixt, your senseless eyes do glaze,
Seek what remains worth seeking: watchful be
For dear salvation; and run down with ease
And certainty the good course. Wipe away
By pious sacred rites your past misdeeds
495 Which expiation need; and shun the storms,
The too uncertain tempests, of the world. 
Then turn to right paths, and keep sanctities.
Hence from your gladsome minds depraved crime
Quite banish; and let long-inveterate fault
500 Be washed forth from your breast; and do away
Wicked ill-stains contracted; and appease
Dread God by prayers eternal; and let all
Most evil mortal things to living good
Give way: and now at once a new life keep
505 Without a crime; and let your minds begin
To use themselves to good things and to true:
And render ready voices to God's praise.
Thus shall your piety find better things
All growing to a flame; thus shall ye, too,
510 Receive the gifts of the celestial life; 
And, to long age, shall ever live with God,
Seeing the starry kingdom's golden joys.
 The reader is requested to bear in mind, in reading this piece, tedious in its elaborate struggles after effect, that the constant repetitions of words and expressions with which his patience will be tried, are due to the original. It was irksome to reproduce them; but fidelity is a translator's first law.
 Helicon is not named in the original, but it seems to be meant.
 i.e., in another clime or continent. The writer is (or feigns to be) an African. Helicon, of course, is in Europe.
 I have endeavoured to give some intelligible sense to these lines; but the absence of syntax in the original, as it now stands, makes it necessary to guess at the meaning as best one may.
 Venturi ævi.
 "But in them nature's copy's not eterne."--Shakespeare, Macbeth, act iii. scene 2.
 Sermone tenus: i.e., the exertion (so to speak) needed to do such mighty works only extended to the uttering of a speech; no more was requisite. See for a similar allusion to the contrast between the making of other things and the making of man, the "Genesis," 30-39.
 i.e., from the solid mass of earth. See Gen. i. 9, 10.
 "Auram," or "breeze."
 "Immemor ille Dei temere committere tale! Non ultra monitum quidquam contingeret." Whether I have hit the sense here I know not. In this and in other passages I have punctuated for myself.
 Munera mundi.
 These lines, again, are but a guess at the meaning of the original, which is as obscure as defiance of grammar can well make it. The sense seems to be, in brief, that while the vast majority are, immediately on their death, shut up in Hades to await the "decreed age," i.e., the day of judgment, some, like the children raised by Elijah and Elisha, the man who revived on touching Elisha's bones, and the like, are raised to die again. Lower down it will be seen that the writer believes that the saints who came out of their graves after our Lord's resurrection (see Matt. xxvii. 51-54) did not die again.
 Cf. Ps. xlix. 14 (xlviii. 15 in LXX.).
 i.e., the dust into which our bodies turn.
 i.e., the surface or ridge of the furrows.
 i.e., the furrows.
 "Some thirty-fold, some sixty-fold, some an hundred-fold." See the parable of the sower.
 Virtutibus. Perhaps the allusion is to Eph. ii. 2, Matt. xxiv. 29, Luke xxi. 26.
 Vel quanta est. If this be the right sense, the words are probably inserted, because the conflagration of "the earth and the works that are therein" predicted in 2 Pet. iii. 10, and referred to lower down in this piece, is supposed to have begun, and thus the "depths" of the earth are supposed to be already diminishing.
 I have ventured to alter one letter of the Latin; and for "quos reddere jussa docebit," read "quos reddere jussa dolebit." If the common reading be retained, the only possible meaning seems to be "whom she will teach to render (to God) His commands," i.e., to render obedience to them; or else, "to render (to God) what they are bidden to render," i.e., an account of themselves; and earth, as their mother, giving them birth out of her womb, is said to teach them to do this. But the emendation, which is at all events simple, seems to give a better sense: "being bidden to render the dead, whom she is keeping, up, earth will grieve at the throes it causes her, but will do it."
 Subitæ virtutis ab alto.
 Comis, here "the heads."
 This passage is imitated from Virgil, Æn., vi. 305 sqq.; Georg., iv. 475 sqq.
 i.e., "the king." The "Atridæ" of Homer are referred to,--Agamemnon "king of men," and Menelaus.
 Or, "Powers."
 Insigni. The allusion seems to be to Ezek. ix. 4, 6, Rev. vii. 3 et seqq., xx. 3, 4, and to the inscribed mitre of the Jewish high priest, see Ex. xxviii. 36; xxxix. 30.
 I have corrected "his" for "hic." If the latter be retained, it would seem to mean "hereon."
 Cardine, i.e., the hinge as it were upon which the sun turns in his course.
 See the "Genesis," 73.
 Or, "there." The question is, whether a different tree is meant, or the rose just spoken of.
 This seems to be marshmallows.
 Here again it is plain that the writer is drawing his description from what we read of the garden of Eden.
 "Salus," health (probably) in its widest sense, both bodily and mental; or perhaps "safety," "salvation."
 Reliquam vitam, i.e., apparently his life in all other relations; unless it mean his life after his parents' death, which seems less likely.
 i.e., "appeals to." So Burke: "I attest the former, I attest the coming generations." This "attesting of its acts" seems to refer to Matt. xxv. 44. It appeals to them in hope of mitigating its doom.
 This seems to be the sense. The Latin stands thus: "Flammas pro meritis, stagnantia tela tremiscunt."
 Or, "banished."
 I adopt the correction (suggested in Migne) of justis for justas.
 This is an extraordinary use for the Latin dative; and even if the meaning be "for (i.e., to suffer) penalty eternal," it is scarcely less so.
 Or, "in all the years:" but see note 5 on this page.
 "Artusque sonori," i.e., probably the arms and hands with which (as has been suggested just before) the sufferers beat their unhappy breasts.
 i.e., the "guerdons" and the "threats."
 "Ipsa voce," unless it mean "voice and all," i.e., and their voice as well as their palms.
 See note 1, p. 137.
 Here again a correction suggested in Migne's ed., of "suam lucem" for "sua luce," is adopted.
 "Qui" is read here, after Migne's suggestion, for "quia;" and Oehler's and Migne's punctuation both are set aside.
 Or, "assume the functions of the heavenly life."
5. Five Books in Reply to Marcion.
Book I.--Of the Divine Unity, and the Resurrection of the Flesh.
Part I.--Of the Divine Unity.
After the Evil One's impiety
Profound, and his life-grudging mind, entrapped
Seducèd men with empty hope, it laid
Them bare, by impious suasion to false trust
5 In him,--not with impunity, indeed;
For he forthwith, as guilty of the deed,
And author rash of such a wickedness,
Received deserved maledictions. Thus,
Thereafter, maddened, he, most desperate foe,
10 Did more assail and instigate men's minds
In darkness sunk. He taught them to forget
The Lord, and leave sure hope, and idols vain
Follow, and shape themselves a crowd of gods,
Lots, auguries, false names of stars, the show
15 Of being able to o'errule the births
Of embryos by inspecting entrails, and
Expecting things to come, by hardihood
Of dreadful magic's renegadoes led,
Wondering at a mass of feigned lore;
20 And he impelled them headlong to spurn life,
Sunk in a criminal insanity;
To joy in blood; to threaten murders fell;
To love the wound, then, in their neighbour's flesh;
Or, burning, and by pleasure's heat entrapped,
25 To transgress nature's covenants, and stain
Pure bodies, manly sex, with an embrace
Unnameable, and uses feminine
Mingled in common contact lawlessly;
Urging embraces chaste, and dedicate
30 To generative duties, to be held
For intercourse obscene for passion's sake.
Such in time past his deeds, assaulting men,
Through the soul's lurking-places, with a flow
Of scorpion-venom,--not that men would blame
35 Him, for they followed of their own accord:
His suasion was in guile; in freedom man
Whileas the perfidious one
Continuously through the centuries 
Is breathing such ill fumes, and into hearts
40 Seduced injecting his own counselling
And hoping in his folly (alas!) to find
Forgiveness of his wickedness, unware
What sentence on his deed is waiting him;
With words of wisdom's weaving,  and a voice
45 Presaging from God's Spirit, speak a host
Of prophets. Publicly he  does not dare
Nakedly to speak evil of the Lord,
Hoping by secret ingenuity
He possibly may lurk unseen. At length
50 The soul's Light  as the thrall of flesh is held;
The hope of the despairing, mightier
Than foe, enters the lists; the Fashioner,
The Renovator, of the body He;
True Glory of the Father; Son of God;
55 Author unique; a Judge and Lord He came,
The orb's renowned King; to the opprest
Prompt to give pardon, and to loose the bound;
Whose friendly aid and penal suffering
Blend God and renewed man in one. With child
60 Is holy virgin: life's new gate opes; words
Of prophets find their proof, fulfilled by facts;
Priests  leave their temples, and--a star their guide--
Wonder the Lord so mean a birth should choose.
Waters--sight memorable!--turn to wine;
65 Eyes are restored to blind; fiends trembling cry,
Outdriven by His bidding, and own Christ!
All limbs, already rotting, by a word
Are healed; now walks the lame; the deaf forthwith
Hears hope; the maimed extends his hand; the dumb
70 Speaks mighty words: sea at His bidding calms,
Winds drop; and all things recognise the Lord:
Confounded is the foe, and yields, though fierce,
Now triumphed over, to unequal  arms!
When all his enterprises now revoked
75 He  sees; the flesh, once into ruin sunk,
Now rising; man--death vanquisht quite--to heavens
Soaring; the peoples sealed with holy pledge
Outpoured;  the work and envied deeds of might
Marvellous;  and hears, too, of penalties
80 Extreme, and of perpetual dark, prepared
For himself by the Lord by God's decree
Irrevocable; naked and unarmed,
Damned, vanquisht, doomed to perish in a death
Perennial, guilty now, and sure that he
85 No pardon has, a last impiety
Forthwith he dares,--to scatter everywhere
A word for ears to shudder at, nor meet
For voice to speak. Accosting men cast off
From God's community,  men wandering
90 Without the light, found mindless, following
Things earthly, them he teaches to become
Depraved teachers of depravity.
By  them he preaches that there are two Sires,
And realms divided: ill's cause is the Lord 
95 Who built the orb, fashioned breath-quickened flesh,
And gave the law, and by the seers' voice spake.
Him he affirms not good, but owns Him just;
Hard, cruel, taking pleasure fell in war;
In judgment dreadful, pliant to no prayers.
100 His suasion tells of other one, to none
E'er known, who nowhere is, a deity
False, nameless, constituting nought, and who
Hath spoken precepts none. Him he calls good;
Who judges none, but spares all equally,
105 And grudges life to none. No judgment waits
The guilty; so he says, bearing about
A gory poison with sweet honey mixt
For wretched men. That flesh can rise--to which
Himself was cause of ruin, which he spoiled
110 Iniquitously with contempt (whence,  cursed,
He hath grief without end), its ever-foe,--
He doth deny; because with various wound
Life to expel and the salvation whence
He fell he strives: and therefore says that Christ
115 Came suddenly to earth,  but was not made,
By any compact, partner of the flesh;
But Spirit-form, and body feigned beneath
A shape imaginary, seeks to mock
Men with a semblance that what is not is.
120 Does this, then, become God, to sport with men
By darkness led? to act an impious lie?
Or falsely call Himself a man? He walks,
Is carried, clothed, takes due rest, handled is,
Suffers, is hung and buried: man's are all
125 Deeds which, in holy body conversant,
But sent by God the Father, who hath all
Created, He did perfect properly,
Reclaiming not another's but His own;
Discernible to peoples who of old
130 Were hoping for Him by His very work,
And through the prophets' voice to the round world 
Best known: and now they seek an unknown Lord,
Wandering in death's threshold manifest,
And leave behind the known. False is their faith,
135 False is their God, deceptive their reward,
False is their resurrection, death's defeat
False, vain their martyrdoms, and e'en Christ's name
An empty sound: whom, teaching that He came
Like magic mist, they (quite demented) own
140 To be the actor of a lie, and make
His passion bootless, and the populace 
(A feigned one!) without crime! Is God thus true?
Are such the honours rendered to the Lord?
Ah! wretched men! gratuitously lost
145 In death ungrateful! Who, by blind guide led,
Have headlong rushed into the ditch!  and as
In dreams the fancied rich man in his store
Of treasure doth exult, and with his hands
Grasps it, the sport of empty hope, so ye, so
150 Deceived, are hoping for a shadow vain
Ah! ye silent laughingstocks,
Or doomed prey, of the dragon, do ye hope,
Stern men, for death in room of gentle peace? 
Dare ye blame God, who hath works
155 So great? in whose earth, 'mid profuse displays
Of His exceeding parent-care, His gifts
(Unmindful of Himself!) ye largely praise,
Rushing to ruin! do ye reprobate--
Approving of the works--the Maker's self,
160 The world's  Artificer, whose work withal
Ye are yourselves? Who gave those little selves
Great honours; sowed your crops; made all the brutes 
Your subjects; makes the seasons of the year
Fruitful with stated months; grants sweetnesses,
165 Drinks various, rich odours, jocund flowers,
And the groves' grateful bowers; to growing herbs
Grants wondrous juices; founts and streams dispreads
With sweet waves, and illumes with stars the sky
And the whole orb: the infinite sole Lord,
170 Both Just and Good; known by His work; to none
By aspect known; whom nations, flourishing
In wealth, but foolish, wrapped in error's shroud,
(Albeit 'tis beneath an alien name
They praise Him, yet) their Maker knowing! dread
175 To blame: nor e'en one  --save you, hell's new gate!--
Thankless, ye choose to speak ill of your Lord!
These cruel deadly gifts the Renegade
Terrible has bestowed, through Marcion--thanks
To Cerdo's mastership--on you; nor comes
180 The thought into your mind that, from Christ's name
Seduced, Marcion's name has carried you
To lowest depths.  Say of His many acts
What one displeases you? or what hath God
Done which is not to be extolled with praise?
185 Is it that He permits you, all too long,
(Unworthy of His patience large,) to see
Sweet light? you, who read truths,  and, docking them,
Teach these your falsehoods, and approve as past
Things which are yet to be?  What hinders, else,
190 That we believe your God incredible? 
Nor marvel is't if, practiced as he  is,
He captived you unarmed, persuading you
There are two Fathers (being damned by One),
And all, whom he had erst seduced, are gods;
195 And after that dispread a pest, which ran
With multiplying wound, and cureless crime,
To many. Men unworthy to be named,
Full of all magic's madness, he induced
To call themselves "Virtue Supreme;" and feign
200 (With harlot comrade) fresh impiety;
To roam, to fly.  He is the insane god
Of Valentine, and to his Æonage
Assigned heavens thirty, and Profundity
Their sire.  He taught two baptisms, and led
205 The body through the flame. That there are gods
So many as the year hath days, he bade
A Basilides to believe, and worlds
As many. Marcus, shrewdly arguing
Through numbers, taught to violate chaste form
210 'Mid magic's arts; taught, too, that the Lord's cup
Is an oblation, and by prayers is turned
To blood. His  suasion prompted Hebion
To teach that Christ was born from human seed;
He taught, too, circumcision, and that room
215 Is still left for the Law, and, though Law's founts
Are lost,  its elements must be resumed.
Unwilling am I to protract in words
His last atrocity, or to tell all
The causes, or the names at length. Enough
220 It is to note his many cruelties
Briefly, and the unmentionable men,
The dragon's organs fell, through whom he now,
Speaking so much profaneness, ever toils
To blame the Maker of the world.  But come;
225 Recall your foot from savage Bandit's cave,
While space is granted, and to wretched men
God, patient in perennial parent-love,
Condones all deeds through error done! Believe
Truly in the true Sire, who built the orb;
230 Who, on behalf of men incapable
To bear the law, sunk in sin's whirlpool, sent
The true Lord to repair the ruin wrought,
And bring them the salvation promised
Of old through seers. He who the mandates gave
235 Remits sins too. Somewhat, deservedly,
Doth He exact, because He formerly
Entrusted somewhat; or else bounteously,
As Lord, condones as it were debts to slaves:
Finally, peoples shut up 'neath the curse,
240 And meriting the penalty, Himself
Deleting the indictment, bids be washed!
Part II.--Of the Resurrection of the Flesh.
The whole man, then, believes; the whole is washed;
Abstains from sin, or truly suffers wounds
For Christ's name's sake: he rises a true  man,
245 Death, truly vanquish, shall be mute. But not
Part of the man,--his soul,--her own part  left
Behind, will win the palm which, labouring
And wrestling in the course, combinedly
And simultaneously with flesh, she earns.
250 Great crime it were for two in chains to bear
A weight, of whom the one were affluent
The other needy, and the wretched one
Be spurned, and guerdons to the happy one
Rendered. Not so the Just--fair Renderer
255 Of wages--deals, both good and just, whom we
Believe Almighty: to the thankless kind
Full is His will of pity. Nay, whate'er
He who hath greater mortal need  doth need 
That, by advancement, to his comrade he
260 May equalled be, that will the affluent
Bestow the rather unsolicited:
So are we bidden to believe, and not
Be willing to cast blame unlawfully
On the Lord in our teaching, as if He
265 Were one to raise the soul, as having met
With ruin, and to set her free from death
So that the granted faculty of life
Upon the ground of sole desert (because
She bravely acted), should abide with her; 
270 While she who ever shared the common lot
Of toil, the flesh, should to the earth be left,
The prey of a perennial death. Has, then,
The soul pleased God by acts of fortitude?
By no means could she Him have pleased alone
275 Without the flesh. Hath she borne penal bonds? 
The flesh sustained upon her limbs the bonds.
Contemned she death? But she hath left the flesh
Behind in death. Groaned she in pain?
The flesh is slain and vanquisht by the wound. Repose
280 Seeks she? The flesh, spilt by the sword in dust,
Is left behind to fishes, birds, decay,
And ashes; torn she is, unhappy one!
And broken; scattered, she melts away.
Hath she not earned to rise? for what could she
285 Have e'er committed, lifeless and alone?
What so life-grudging  cause impedes, or else
Forbids, the flesh to take God's gifts, and live
Ever, conjoined with her comrade soul,
And see what she hath been, when formerly
290 Converted into dust?  After, renewed,
Bear she to God deserved meeds of praise,
Not ignorant of herself, frail, mortal, sick. 
Contend ye as to what the living might 
Of the great God can do; who, good alike
295 And potent, grudges life to none? Was this
Death's captive?  shall this perish vanquished
Which the Lord hath with wondrous wisdom made,
And art? This by His virtue wonderful
Himself upraises; this our Leader's self
300 Recalls, and this with His own glory clothes
God's art and wisdom, then, our body shaped
What can by these be made, how faileth it
To be by virtue reproduced?  No cause
Can holy parent-love withstand; (lest else
305 Ill's cause  should mightier prove than Power Supreme;)
That man even now saved by God's gift, may learn 
(Mortal before, now robed in light immense
Inviolable, wholly quickened,  soul
And body) God, in virtue infinite,
310 In parent-love perennial, through His King
Christ, through whom opened is light's way; and now,
Standing in new light, filled now with each gift, 
Glad with fair fruits of living Paradise,
May praise and laud Him to eternity, 
315 Rich in the wealth of the celestial hall.
 The "tectis" of the edd. I have ventured to alter to "textis," which gives (as in my text) a far better sense.
 i.e., the Evil One.
 i.e., the Son of God.
 i.e., the Magi.
 i.e., arms which seemed unequal; for the cross, in which Christ seemed to be vanquished, was the very means of His triumph. See Col. ii. 14, 15.
 i.e., the Enemy.
 i.e., with the Holy Spirit, the "Pledge" or "Promise" of the Father (see Acts i. 4, 5), "outpoured" upon "the peoples"--both Jewish and Gentile--on the day of Pentecost and many subsequent occasions; see, for instances, Acts x. and xix.
 The "mirandæ virtutis opus, invisaque facts," I take to be the miracles wrought by the apostles through the might (virtus) of the Spirit, as we read in the Acts. These were objects of "envy" to the Enemy, and to such as--like Simon Magus, of whom we find record--were his servants.
 i.e., excommunicated, as Marcion was. The "last impiety" (extremum nefas), or "last atrocity" (extremum facinus),--see 218, lower down--seems to mean the introduction of heretical teaching.
 This use of the ablative, though quite against classical usage, is apparently admissible in late Latinity. It seems to me that the "his" is an ablative here, the men being regarded for the moment as merely instruments, not agents; but it may be a dative ="to these he preaches," etc., i.e., he dictates to them what they afterwards are to teach in public.
 It must be borne in mind that "Dominus" (the Lord), and "Deus" (God), are kept as distinct terms throughout this piece.
 i.e., for which reason.
 i.e., as Marcion is stated by some to have taught, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius; founding his statement upon a perverted reading of Luke iii. 1. It will be remembered that Marcion only used St. Luke's Gospel, and that in a mutilated and corrupted form.
 i.e., of the Jews.
 "In fossa," i.e., as Fabricius (quoted in Migne's ed.) explains it, "in defossa." It is the past part. of fodio.
 If this line be correct,--"Speratis pro pace truces homicidia blanda,"--though I cannot see the propriety of the "truces" in it, it seems to mean, "Do ye hope or expect that the master you are serving will, instead of the gentle peace he promises you, prove a murderer and lead you to death? No, you do not expect it; but so it is."
 The sentence breaks off abruptly, and the verb which should apparently have gone with "e'en one" is joined to the "ye" in the next line.
 The Latin is:-- "Nec venit in mentem quod vos, a nomine Christi Seductos, ad Marcionis tulit infima nomen." The rendering in my text, I admit, involves an exceedingly harsh construction of the Latin, but I see not how it is to be avoided; unless either (1) we take nomen absolutely, and "ad Marcionis infima" together, and translate, "A name has carried you to Marcion's lowest depths;" in which case the question arises, What name is meant? can it be the name "Electi"? Or else (2) we take "tulit" as referring to the "terrible renegade," i.e., the arch-fiend, and "infima" as in apposition with "ad Marcionis nomen," and translate, "He has carried you to the name of Marcion--deepest degradation."
 i.e., the Gospels and other parts of Holy Scripture.
 i.e., I take it, the resurrection. Cf. 2 Tim. ii. 17, 18.
 Whether this be the sense (i.e., "either tell us what it is which displeases you in our God, whether it be His too great patience in bearing with you, or what; or else tell us what is to hinder us from believing your God to be an incredible being") of this passage, I will not venture to determine. The last line in the edd. previous to Oehler's ran: "Aut incredibile quid differt credere vestrum?" Oehler reads "incredibilem" (sc. Deum), which I have followed; but he suggests, "Aut incredibilem qui differt cædere vestrum?" Which may mean "or else"--i.e., if it were not for his "too great patience"--"why"--"qui"--"does He delay to smite your incredible god?" and thus challenge a contest and prove His own superiority.
 i.e., the "terrible renegade."
 The reference here is to Simon Magus; for a brief account of whom, and of the other heretics in this list, down to Hebion inclusive, the reader is referred to the Adv. omn. Hær., above. The words "to roam, to fly," refer to the alleged wanderings of Simon with his paramour Helen, and his reported attempt (at Rome, in the presence of St. Peter) to fly. The tale is doubtful.
 The Latin runs thus:-- "Et ævo Triginta tribuit cælos, patremque Profundum." But there seems a confusion between Valentine and his æons and Basilides and his heavens. See the Adv. omn. Hær., above.
 i.e., the Evil One's, as before.
 i.e., probably Jerusalem and the temple there.
 Oehler's "versus" (="changed the man rises") is set aside for Migne's "verus." Indeed it is probably a misprint.
 i.e., her own dwelling or "quarters,"--the body, to wit, if the reading "sua parte" be correct.
 I have ventured to alter the "et viventi" of Oehler and Migne into "ut vivendi," which seems to improve the sense.
 It seems to me that these ideas should all be expressed interrogatively, and I have therefore so expressed them in my text.
 See line 2.
 "Cernere quid fuerit conversa in pulvere quondam." Whether the meaning be that, as the soul will be able (as it should seem) to retrace all that she has experienced since she left the body, so the body, when revived, will be able as it were to look back upon all that has happened to her since the soul left her,--something after the manner in which Hamlet traces the imaginary vicissitudes of Cæsar's dust,--or whether there be some great error in the Latin, I leave the reader to judge.
 i.e., apparently remembering that she was so before.
 Vivida virtus.
 I rather incline to read for "hæc captiva fuit mortis," "hæc captiva fuat mortis" = "Is this To be death's thrall?" "This" is, of course, the flesh.
 For "Quod cupit his fieri, deest hoc virtute reduci," I venture to read, "Quod capit," etc., taking "capit" as ="capax est." "By these," of course, is by wisdom and art; and "virtue" ="power."
 i.e., the Evil One.
 i.e., may learn to know.
 Oehler's "visus" seems to be a mistake for "vivus," which is Migne's reading; as in the fragment "De exsecrandis gentium diis," we saw (sub. fin.) "videntem" to be a probable misprint for "viventem." If, however, it is to be retained, it must mean "appearing" (i.e., in presence of God) "wholly," in body as well as soul.
 i.e., the double gift of a saved soul and a saved body.
 In æternum.
Book II.--Of the Harmony of the Old and New Laws. 
After the faith was broken by the dint
Of the foe's breathing renegades,  and sworn
With wiles the hidden pest  emerged; with lies
Self-prompted, scornful of the Deity
5 That underlies the sense, he did his plagues
Concoct: skilled in guile's path, he mixed his own
Words impious with the sayings of the saints.
And on the good seed sowed his wretched tares,
Thence willing that foul ruin's every cause
10 Should grow combined; to wit, that with more speed
His own iniquitous deeds he may assign
To God clandestinely, and may impale
On penalties such as his suasion led;
False with true veiling, turning rough with smooth,
15 And, (masking his spear's point with rosy wreaths,)
Slaying the unwary unforeseen with death
Supreme. His supreme wickedness is this:
That men, to such a depth of madness sunk!
Off-broken boughs!  should into parts divide
20 The endlessly-dread Deity; Christ's deeds
Sublime should follow with false praise, and blame
The former acts,  God's countless miracles,
Ne'er seen before, nor heard, nor in a heart
Conceived;  and should so rashly frame in words
25 The impermissible impiety
Of wishing by "wide dissimilitude
Of sense" to prove that the two Testaments
Sound adverse each to other, and the Lord's
Oppose the prophets' words; of drawing down
30 All the Law's cause to infamy; and eke
Of reprobating holy fathers' life
Of old, whom into friendship, and to share
His gifts, God chose. Without beginning, one
Is, for its lesser part, accepted.  Though
35 Of one are four, of four one,  yet to them
One part is pleasing, three they (in a word)
Reprobate: and they seize, in many ways,
On Paul as their own author; yet was he
Urged by a frenzied impulse of his own
40 To his last words:  all whatsoe'er he spake
Of the old covenant  seems hard to them
Because, deservedly, "made gross in heart." 
Weight apostolic, grace of beaming word,
Dazzles their mind, nor can they possibly
45 Discern the Spirit's drift. Dull as they are,
Seek they congenial animals!
Who have not yet, (false deity your guide,
Reprobate in your very mind,  ) to death's
Inmost caves penetrated, learn there flows
50 A stream perennial from its fount, which feeds
A tree, (twice sixfold are the fruits, its grace!)
And into earth and to the orb's four winds
Goes out: into so many parts doth flow
The fount's one hue and savour.  Thus, withal,
55 From apostolic word descends the Church,
Out of Christ's womb, with glory of His Sire
All filled, to wash off filth, and vivify
Dead fates.  The Gospel, four in number, one
In its diffusion 'mid the Gentiles, this,
60 By faith elect accepted, Paul hands down
(Excellent doctor!) pure, without a crime;
And from it he forbade Galatian saints
To turn aside withal; whom "brethren false,"
(Urging them on to circumcise themselves,
65 And follow "elements," leaving behind
Their novel "freedom,") to "a shadow old
Of things to be" were teaching to be slaves.
These were the causes which Paul had to write
To the Galatians: not that they took out
70 One small part of the Gospel, and held that
For the whole bulk, leaving the greater part
Behind. And hence 'tis no words of a book,
But Christ Himself, Christ sent into the orb,
Who is the gospel, if ye will discern;
75 Who from the Father came, sole Carrier
Of tidings good; whose glory vast completes
The early testimonies; by His work
Showing how great the orb's Creator is:
Whose deeds, conjoined at the same time with words,
80 Those faithful ones, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
Recorded unalloyed (not speaking words
External), sanctioned by God's Spirit, 'neath
So great a Master's eye!
This paschal Lamb
Is hung, a victim, on the tree: Him Paul,
85 Writing decrees to Corinth, with his torch, 
Hands down as slain, the future life and God
Promised to the fathers, whom before
He had attracted.
See what virtue, see
What power, the paschal image  has; ye thus
90 Will able be to see what power there is
In the true Passover.
Lest well-earned love
Should tempt the faithful sire and seer,  to whom
His pledge and heir  was dear, whom God by chance 
Had given him, to offer him to God
95 (A mighty execution!), there is shown
To him a lamb entangled by the head
In thorns; a holy victim--holy blood
For blood--to God. From whose piacular death,
That to the wasted race  it might be sign
100 And pledge of safety, signed are with blood
Their posts and thresholds many:  --aid immense!
The flesh (a witness credible) is given
For food. The Jordan crossed, the land possessed,
Joshua by law kept Passover with joy,
105 And immolates a lamb; and the great kings
And holy prophets that were after him,
Not ignorant of the good promises
Of sure salvation; full of godly fear
The great Law to transgress, (that mass of types
110 In image of the Supreme Virtue once
To come,) did celebrate in order due
The mirrorly-inspected passover. 
In short, if thou recur with rapid mind
To times primordial, thou wilt find results
115 Too fatal following impious words. That man
Easily credulous, alas! and stripped
Of life's own covering, might covered be
With skins, a lamb is hung: the wound slays sins,
Or death by blood effaces or enshrouds
120 Or cherishes the naked with its fleece.
Is sheep's blood of more worth than human blood,
That, offered up for sins, it should quench wrath?
Or is a lamb (as if he were more dear!)
Of more worth than much people's? aid immense!
125 As safeguard of so great salvation, could
A lamb, if offered, have been price enough
For the redeemed? Nay: but Almighty God,
The heaven's and earth's Creator, infinite, 
Living, and perfect, and perennially
130 Dwelling in light, is not appeased by these,
Nor joys in cattle's blood. Slain be all flocks;
Be every herd upburned into smoke;
That expiatively 't may pardon win
Of but one sin: in vain at so vile price;
135 Will the stained figure of the Lord--foul flesh--
Prepare, if wise, such honours:  but the hope
And faith to mortals promised of old--
Great Reason's counterpart  --hath wrought to bring
These boons premeditated and prepared
140 Erst by the Father's passing parent-love;
That Christ should come to earth, and be a man!
Whom when John saw, baptism's first opener, John,
Comrade of seers, apostle great, and sent
As sure forerunner, witness faithful; John,
145 August in life, and marked with praise sublime, 
He shows, to such as sought of olden time
God's very Paschal Lamb, that He is come
At last, the expiation of misdeed,
To undo many's sins by His own blood,
150 In place of reprobates the Proven One,
In place of vile the dear; in body, man;
And, in life, God: that He, as the slain Lamb,
Might us accept,  and for us might outpour
Himself Thus hath it pleased the Lord to spoil
155 Proud death: thus wretched man will able be
To hope salvation. This slain paschal Lamb
Paul preaches: nor does a phantasmal shape
Of the sublime Lord (one consimilar
To Isaac's silly sheep  ) the passion bear,
160 Wherefore He is called Lamb: but 'tis because,
As wool, He these renewed bodies clothes,
Giving to many covering, yet Himself
Never deficient. Thus does the Lord shroud
In His Sire's virtue, those whom, disarrayed
165 Of their own light, He by His death redeemed,
Virtue which ever is in Him. So, then,
The Shepherd who hath lost the sheep Himself
Re-seeks it. He, prepared to tread the strength
Of the vine, and its thorns, or to o'ercome
170 The wolf's rage, and regain the cattle lost,
And brave to snatch them out, the Lion He
In sheepskin-guise, unasked presents Himself
To the contemned  teeth, baffling by His garb
The robber's bloody jaws.
175 Christ seeks force-captured Adam; treads the path
Himself where death wrought ruin; permeates
All the old heroes' monuments;  inspects
Each one; the One of whom all types were full;
Begins e'en from the womb to expel the death
180 Conceived simultaneously with seed
Of flesh within the bosom; purging all
Life's stages with a silent wisdom; debts
Assuming;  ready to cleanse all, and give
Their Maker back the many whom the one 
185 Had scattered. And, because one direful man
Down-sunk in pit iniquitous did fall,
By dragon-subdued virgin's  suasion led;
Because he pleased her wittingly;  because
He left his heavenly covering  behind:
190 Because the "tree" their nakedness did prove;
Because dark death coerced them: in like wise
Out of the self-same mass  re-made returns
Renewed now,--the flower of flesh, and host
Of peace,--a flesh from espoused virgin born,
195 Not of man's seed; conjoined to its own
Artificer; without the debt of death.
These mandates of the Father through bright stars
An angel carries down, that angel-fame
The tidings may accredit; telling how
200 "A virgin's debts a virgin, flesh's flesh,
Should pay." Thus introduced, the Giant-Babe,
The Elder-Boy, the Stripling-Man, pursues
Death's trail. Thereafter, when completed was
The ripe age of man's strength, when man is wont
205 To see the lives that were his fellows drop
By slow degrees away, and to be changed
In mien to wrinkles foul and limbs inert,
While blood forsakes his veins, his course he stayed,
And suffered not his fleshly garb to age.
210 Upon what day or in what place did fall
Most famous Adam, or outstretched his hand
Rashly to touch the tree, on that same day,
Returning as the years revolve, within
The stadium of the "tree" the brave Athlete,
215 'Countering, outstretched His hands, and, penalty
For praise pursuing,  quite did vanquish death,
Because He left death of His own accord
Behind, disrobing Him of fleshly slough,
And of death's dues; and to the "tree" affixed
220 The serpent's spoil--"the world's  prince" vanquisht quite!
Grand trophy of the renegades: for sign
Whereof had Moses hung the snake, that all,
Who had by many serpents stricken been,
Might gaze upon the dragon's self, and see
225 Him vanquisht and transfixt.
He reached the infernal region's secret waves,
And, as a victor, by the light which aye
Attended Him, revealed His captive thrall,
And by His virtue thoroughly fulfilled
230 The Father's bidding, He Himself re-took
The body which, spontaneous, He had left:
This was the cause of death: this same was made
Salvation's path: a messenger of guile
The former was; the latter messenger
235 Of peace: a spouse her man  did slay; a spouse
Did bear a lion:  hurtful to her man 
A virgin  proved; a man  from virgin born
Proved victor: for a type whereof, while sleep
His  body wrapped, out of his side is ta'en
240 A woman,  who is her lord's  rib; whom, he,
Awaking, called "flesh from his flesh, and bones
From his own bones;" with a presaging mind
Speaking. Faith wondrous! Paul deservedly,
(Most certain author!) teaches Christ to be
245 "The Second Adam from the heavens."  Truth,
Using her own examples, doth refulge;
Nor covets out of alien source to show
Her paces keen:  this is a pauper's work,
Needy of virtue of his own! Great Paul
250 These mysteries--taught to him--did teach; to wit,
Discerning that in Christ thy glory is,
O Church! from His side, hanging on high "tree,"
His lifeless body's "blood and humour" flowed.
The blood the woman  was; the waters were
255 The new gifts of the font:  this is the Church,
True mother of a living people; flesh
New from Christ's flesh, and from His bones a bone.
A spot there is called Golgotha,--of old
The fathers' earlier tongue thus called its name,--
260 "The skull-pan of a head:" here is earth's midst;
Here victory's sign; here, have our elders taught,
There was a great head  found; here the first man,
We have been taught, was buried; here the Christ
Suffers; with sacred blood the earth  grows moist.
265 That the old Adam's dust may able be,
Commingled with Christ's blood, to be upraised
By dripping water's virtue. The "one ewe"
That is, which, during Sabbath-hours, alive
The Shepherd did resolve that He would draw
270 Out of th' infernal pit. This was the cause
Why, on the Sabbaths, He was wont to cure
The prematurely dead limbs of all flesh;
Or perfected for sight the eyes of him
Blind from his birth--eyes which He had not erst
275 Given; or, in presence of the multitude,
Called, during Sabbath-hours, one wholly dead
To life, e'en from the sepulchre.  Himself
The new man's Maker, the Repairer good
Of th' old, supplying what did lack, or else
280 Restoring what was lost. About to do--
When dawns "the holy day"--these works, for such
As hope in Him, in plenitude, (to keep
His plighted word,) He taught men thus His power
To do them.
What? If flesh dies, and no hope
285 Is given of salvation, say, what grounds
Christ had to feign Himself a man, and head
Men, or have care for flesh? If He recalls 
Some few, why shall He not withal recall
All? Can corruption's power liquefy
290 The body and undo it, and shall not
The virtue of the Lord be powerful
The undone to recall?
They, who believe
Their bodies are not loosed from death, do not
Believe the Lord, who wills to raise His own
295 Works sunken; or else say they that the Good
Wills not, and that the Potent hath not power,--
Ignorant from how great a crime they suck
Their milk, in daring to set things infirm
Above the Strong.  In the grain lurks the tree;
300 And if this  rot not, buried in the earth,
It yields not tree-graced fruits.  Soon bound will be
The liquid waters: 'neath the whistling cold
They will become, and ever will be stones,
Unless a mighty power, by leading on
305 Soft-breathing warmth, undo them. The great bunch
Lurks in the tendril's slender body: if
Thou seek it, it is not; when God doth will,
'Tis seen to be. On trees their leaves, on thorns
The rose, the seeds on plains, are dead and fail,
310 And rise again, new living. For man's use
These things doth God before his eyes recall
And form anew--man's, for whose sake at first 
The wealthy One made all things bounteously.
All naked fall; with its own body each
315 He clothes. Why man alone, on whom He showered
Such honours, should He not recall in all
His first perfection  to Himself? man, whom
He set o'er all?
Flesh, then, and blood are said
To be not worthy of God's realm, as if
320 Paul spake of flesh materially. He
Indeed taught mighty truths; but hearts inane
Think he used carnal speech: for pristine deeds
He meant beneath the name of "flesh and blood;"
Remembering, heavenly home--slave that he is,
325 His heavenly Master's words; who gave the name
Of His own honour to men born from Him
Through water, and from His own Spirit poured
A pledge;  that, by whose virtue men had been
Redeemed, His name of honour they withal
330 Might, when renewed, receive. Because, then, He
Refused, on the old score, the heavenly realm
To peoples not yet from His fount re-born,
Still with their ancient sordid raiment clad--
These are "the dues of death"--saying that that
335 Which human is must needs be born again,--
"What hath been born of flesh is flesh; and what
From Spirit, life;"  and that the body, washed,
Changing with glory its old root's new seeds, 
Is no more called "from flesh:" Paul follows this;
340 Thus did he speak of "flesh." In fine, he said 
This frail garb with a robe must be o'erclad,
This mortal form be wholly covered;
Not that another body must be given,
But that the former one, dismantled,  must
345 Be with God's kingdom wholly on all sides
Surrounded: "In the moment of a glance,"
He says, "it shall be changed:" as, on the blade,
Dispreads the red corn's  face, and changes 'neath
The sun's glare its own hue; so the same flesh,
350 From "the effulgent glory"  borrowing,
Shall ever joy, and joying,  shall lack death;
Exclaiming that "the body's cruel foe
Is vanquisht quite; death, by the victory
Of the brave Christ, is swallowed;"  praises high
355 Bearing to God, unto the highest stars.
 I have so frequently had to construct my own text (by altering the reading or the punctuation of the Latin) in this book, that, for brevity's sake, I must ask the reader to be content with this statement once for all, and not expect each case to be separately noted.
 The "foe," as before, is Satan; his "breathing instruments" are the men whom he uses (cf. Shakespeare's "no breather" = no man, in the dialogue between Orlando and Jacques, As you Like it, act iii. sc. 2); and they are called "renegades," like the Evil One himself, because they have deserted from their allegiance to God in Christ.
 Cf. John xv. 2, 4, 5, 6; Rom. xi. 17-20. The writer simply calls them "abruptos homines;" and he seems to mean excommunicated, like Marcion.
 i.e., those recorded in the Old Testament.
 I have followed Migne's suggestion here, and transposed one line of the original. The reference seems to be to Isa. lxiv. 4, quoted in 1 Cor. ii. 9, where the Greek differs somewhat remarkably from the LXX.
 Unless some line has dropped out here, the construction, harsh enough in my English, is yet harsher in the Latin. "Accipitur" has no subject of any kind, and one can only guess from what has gone before, and what follows, that it must mean "one Testament."
 Harsh still. It must refer to the four Gospels--the "coat without seam"--in their quadrate unity; Marcion receiving but one--St. Luke's--and that without St. Luke's name, and also in a mutilated and interpolated form.
 This seems to be the sense. The allusion is to the fact that Marcion and his sect accepted but ten of St. Paul's Epistles: leaving out entirely those to Timothy and Titus, and all the other books, except his one Gospel.
 It seems to me that the reference here must evidently be to the Epistle to the Hebrews, which treats specially of the old covenant. If so, we have some indication as to the authorship, if not the date, of the book: for Tertullian himself, though he frequently cites the Epistle, appears to hesitate (to say the least) as to ascribing it to St. Paul.
 Comp. Isa. vi. 9, 10, with Acts xxviii. 17-29.
 The reference seems to be to Rom. i. 28; comp., too, Tit. i. 15, 16.
 The reference is to Gen. ii. 9-14.
 Fata mortua. This extraordinary expression appears to mean "dead men;" men who, through Adam, are fated, so to speak, to die, and are under the sad fate of being "dead in trespasses and sins." See Eph. ii. 1. As far as quantity is concerned, it might as well be "facta mortua," "dead works," such as we read of in Heb. vi. 1; ix. 14. It is true these works cannot strictly be said to be ever vivified; but a very similar inaccuracy seems to be committed by our author lower down in this same book.
 I have followed Oehler's "face" for the common "phase;" but what the meaning is I will not venture to decide. It may probably mean one of two things: (a) that Paul wrote by torchlight; (b) that the light which Paul holds forth in his life and writings, is a torch to show the Corinthians and others Christ.
 i.e., the legal passover, "image" or type of "the true Passover," Christ. See 1 Cor. v. 6-9.
 Abraham. See Gen. xxii. 1-19.
 Isaac, a pledge to Abraham of all God's other promises.
 Forte. I suppose this means out of the ordinary course of nature; but it is a strange word to use.
 Israel, wasted by the severities of their Egyptian captivity.
 "Multa;" but "muta" ="mute" has been suggested, and is not inapt.
 I have given what appears to be a possible sense for these almost unintelligible lines. They run as follows in Oehler:-- "Et reliqui magni reges sanctique prophetæ, Non ignorantes certæ promissa salutis, Ingentemque metu pleni transcendere legem, Venturam summæ virtutis imagine molem, Inspectam e speculo celebrarunt ordine pascham." I rather incline to alter them somehow thus :-- "Ingentemque metu plenis transcendere legem, Venturum in summæ virtutis imagine,--solem Inspectum e speculo,--celebrarunt ordine pascham;" connecting these three lines with "non ignorantes," and rendering:-- "Not ignorant of the good promises Of sure salvation; and that One would come, For such as filled are with godly fear The law to overstep, a mighty One, In Highest Virtue's image,--the Sun seen In mirror:--did in order celebrate The passover." That is, in brief, they all, in celebrating the type, looked forward to the Antitype to come.
 This, again, seems to be the meaning, unless the passage (which is not probable) be corrupt. The flesh, "foul" now with sin, is called the "stained image of the Lord," as having been originally in His image, but being now stained by guilt.
 Faith is called so, as being the reflection of divine reason.
 i.e., the praise of Christ Himself. See Matt. xi. 7-15, with the parallel passage, Luke vii. 24-30; comp. also John v. 33-35.
 i.e., perhaps "render acceptable."
 See above, 91-99.
 i.e., teeth which He contemned, for His people's sake: not that they are to us contemptible.
 i.e., perhaps permeating, by the influence of His death, the tombs of all the old saints.
 i.e., undertaking our debts in our stead.
 Adam. See Rom. v., passim.
 It is an idea of the genuine Tertullian, apparently, that Eve was a "virgin" all the time she was with Adam in Paradise. A similar idea appears in the "Genesis" above.
 Consilio. Comp. 1 Tim. ii. 14, "Adam was not deceived."
 Called "life's own covering" (i.e., apparently his innocence) in 117, above.
 Or, "ore."
 Comp. Heb. xii. 2, "Who, for the joy that was set before Him"--"hos anti tes prokeimenes hauto charas.
 Mundi. See John xiv. 30.
 "The Lion of the tribe of Juda." Rev. v. 5.
 Viro. This use of "man" may be justified, to say nothing of other arguments, from Jer. xliv. 19, where "our men" seem plainly ="our husbands." See marg.
 Virgo: a play on the word in connection with the "viro" and what follows.
 i.e., Adam's. The constructions, as will be seen, are oddly confused throughout, and I rather suspect some transposition of lines.
 See 1 Cor. xv. 22 sqq., especially 45, 47.
 Acres gressus.
 "Os;" lit., "face" or "mouth."
 This would seem to refer to Lazarus; but it seems to be an assumption that his raising took place on a Sabbath.
 i.e., to life.
 I have ventured to alter the "Morti," of the edd. into "Forti;" and "causas" (as we have seen) seems, in this late Latin, nearly ="res."
 i.e., the grain.
 This may seem an unusual expression, as it is more common to regard the fruit as gracing the tree, than the tree the fruit. But, in point of fact, the tree, with its graceful form and foliage, may be said to give a grace to the fruit; and so our author puts it here: "decoratos arbore fructus."
 I read "primum" here for "primus."
 "Tantum" ="tantum quantum primo fuerat," i.e., with a body as well as a spirit.
 Pignus: "the promise of the Father" (Acts i. 4); "the earnest of the Spirit" (2 Cor. i. 22; v. 5.). See, too, Eph. i. 13, 14; Rom. viii. 23.
 The reference is to John iii. 6, but it is not quite correctly given.
 See note on 245, above.
 See 2 Cor. v. 1. sqq.
 I read "inermum"--a very rare form--here for "inermem." But there seems a confusion in the text, which here, as elsewhere, is probably corrupt.
 "Ceræ," which seems senseless here, I have changed to "cereris."
 There seems to be a reference to 2 Pet. i. 17.
 Here again I have altered the punctuation by a very simple change.
 See 1 Cor. xv. 54; Isa. xxv. 8 (where the LXX. have a strange reading).
Book III.--Of the Harmony of the Fathers of the Old and New Testaments.
Now hath the mother, formerly surnamed
Barren, giv'n birth:  now a new people, born
From the free woman,  joys: (the slave expelled,
Deservedly, with her proud progeny;
5 Who also leaves ungratefully behind
The waters of the living fount,  and drinks--
Errant on heated plains--'neath glowing star:  )
Now can the Gentiles as their parent claim
Abraham; who, the Lord's voice following,
10 Like him, have all things left,  life's pilgrimage
To enter. "Be glad, barren one;" conceive
The promised people; "break thou out, and cry,"
Who with no progeny wert blest; of whom
Spake, through the seers, the Spirit of old time:
15 She hath borne, out of many nations, one;
With whose beginning are her pious limbs
Ever in labour.
Hers "just Abel"  was,
A pastor and a cattle--master he;
Whom violence of brother's right hand slew
20 Of old. Her Enoch, signal ornament,
Limb from her body sprung, by counsel strove
To recall peoples gone astray from God
And following misdeed, (while raves on earth
The horde of robber-renegades,  ) to flee
25 The giants'sacrilegious cruel race;
Faithful in all himself. With groaning deep 
Did he please God, and by deserved toil
Translated  is reserved as a pledge,
With honour high. Perfect in praise, and found
30 Faultless, and just--God witnessing  the fact--
In an adulterous people, Noah (he
Who in twice fifty years  the ark did weave)
By deeds and voice the coming ruin told.
Favour he won, snatched out of so great waves
35 Of death, and, with his progeny, preserved.
Then, in the generation  following,
Is Abraham, whose sons ye do deny
Yourselves to be; who first--race, country, sire,
All left behind--at suasion of God's voice
40 Withdrew to realms extern: such honours he
At God's sublime hand worthily deserved
As to be father to believing tribes
And peoples. Jacob with the patriarchs
(Himself their patriarch) through all his own
45 Life's space the gladdest times of Christ foresang
By words, act, virtue, toil.
From foul youth's stain--Joseph, by slander feigned,
Doomed to hard penalty and gaol: his groans
Glory succeeds, and the realm's second crown, so
50 And in dearth's time large power of furnishing
Bread: so appropriate a type of Christ,
So lightsome type of Light, is manifest
To all whose mind hath eyes, that they may see
In a face-mirror  their sure hope.
55 The patriarch Judah, see; the origin
Of royal line,  whence leaders rose, nor kings
Failed ever from his seed, until the Power
To come, by Gentiles looked for, promised long,
Moses, leader of the People, (he
60 Who, spurning briefly--blooming riches, left
The royal thresholds,) rather chose to bear
His people's toils, afflicted, with bowed neck,
By no threats daunted, than to gain himself
Enjoyments, and of many penalties
65 Remission: admirable for such faith
And love, he, with God's virtue armed, achieved
Great exploits: smote the nation through with plagues;
And left their land behind, and their hard king
Confounds, and leads the People back; trod waves;
70 Sunk the foes down in waters; through a "tree" 
Made ever-bitter waters sweet; spake much
(Manifestly to the People) with the Christ, 
From whose face light and brilliance in his own
Reflected shone; dashed on the ground the law
75 Accepted through some few,  --implicit type,
And sure, of his own toils!--smote through the rock;
And, being bidden, shed forth streams; and stretched
His hands that, by a sign,  he vanquish might
The foe; of Christ all severally, all 
80 Combined through Christ, do speak. Great and approved,
He  rests with praise and peace.
The son of Nun, erst called Oshea--this man
The Holy Spirit to Himself did join
As partner in His name:  hence did he cleave
85 The flood; constrained the People to pass o'er;
Freely distributed the land--the prize
Promised the fathers!--stayed both sun and moon
While vanquishing the foe; races extern
And giants' progeny outdrave; razed groves;
90 Altars and temples levelled; and with mind
Loyal  performed all due solemnities:
Type of Christ's name; his virtue's image.
Touching the People's Judges shall I say
Singly? whose virtues,  if unitedly
95 Recorded, fill whole volumes numerous
With space of words. But yet the order due
Of filling out the body of my words,
Demands that, out of many, I should tell
The life of few.
Of whom when Gideon, guide
100 Of martial band, keen to attack the foe,
(Not keen to gain for his own family,
By virtue,  tutelary dignity,  )
And needing to be strengthened  in the faith
Excited in his mind, seeks for a sign
105 Whereby he either could not, or could, wage
Victorious war; to wit, that with the dew
A fleece, exposèd for the night, should be
Moistened, and all the ground lie dry around
(By this to show that, with the world,  should dry 
110 The enemies' palm); and then again, the fleece
Alone remaining dry, the earth by night
Should with the self-same  moisture be bedewed:
For by this sign he prostrated the heaps
Of bandits; with Christ's People 'countering them
115 Without much soldiery, with cavalry 
Three hundred--the Greek letter Tau, in truth,
That number is  --with torches armed, and horns
Of blowers with the mouth: then  was the fleece,
The people of Christ's sheep, from holy seed
120 Born (for the earth means nations various,
And scattered through the orb), which fleece the word
Nourishes; night death's image; Tau the sign
Of the dear cross; the horn the heraldings
Of life; the torches shining in their stand 
125 The glowing Spirit: and this testing, too,
Forsooth, an image of Christ's virtue was: 
To teach that death's fierce battles should not be
By trump angelic vanquished before
Th' indocile People be deservedly
130 By their own fault left desolate behind,
And Gentiles, flourishing in faith, received
Yea, Deborah, a woman far
Above all fame, appears; who, having braced
Herself for warlike toil, for country's sake,
135 Beneath the palm-tree sang how victory
Had crowned her People; thanks to whom it was
That the foes, vanquisht, turned at once their backs,
And Sisera their leader fled; whose flight
No man, nor any band, arrested: him,
140 Suddenly renegade, a woman's hand--
Jael's  --with wooden weapon vanquished quite,
For token of Christ's victory.
With firm faith
Jephthah appears, who a deep-wounding vow
Dared make--to promise God a grand reward
145 Of war: him  then, because he senselessly
Had promised what the Lord not wills, first meets
The pledge  dear to his heart; who suddenly
Fell by a lot unhoped by any. He,
To keep his promise, broke the sacred laws
150 Of parenthood: the shade of mighty fear
Did in his violent mind cover his vow
Of sin: as solace of his widowed life
For  wickedness, renown, and, for crime, praise,
Nor Samson's strength, all corporal might
155 Passing, must we forget; the Spirit's gift
Was this; the power was granted to his head. 
Alone he for his People, daggerless,
Armless, an ass-jaw grasping, prostrated
A thousand corpses; and no bonds could keep
160 The hero bound: but after his shorn pride
Forsook him thralled, he fell, and, by his death,--
Though vanquisht,--bought his foes back 'neath his power.
Marvellous Samuel, who first received
The precept to anoint kings, to give chrism
165 And show men-Christs,  so acted laudably
In life's space as, e'en after his repose,
To keep prophetic rights. 
David, great king and prophet, with a voice
Submiss was wont Christ's future suffering
170 To sing: which prophecy spontaneously
His thankless lawless People did perform:
Whom  God had promised that in time to come,
Fruit of his womb,  a holy progeny,
He would on his sublime throne set: the Lord's
175 Fixt faith did all that He had promised.
Corrector of an inert People rose
Emulous  Hezekiah; who restored
Iniquitous forgetful men the Law: 
All these God's mandates of old time he first
180 Bade men observe, who ended war by prayers, 
Not by steel's point: he, dying, had a grant
Of years and times of life made to his tears:
Deservedly such honour his career
With zeal immense, Josiah, prince
185 Himself withal, in like wise acted: none
So much, before or after!--Idols he
Dethroned; destroyed unhallowed temples; burned
With fire priests on their altars; all the bones
Of prophets false updug; the altars burned,
190 The carcases to be consumed did serve
To the praise of signal faith,
Noble Elijah, (memorable fact!)
Was rapt;  who hath not tasted yet death's dues;
Since to the orb he is to come again.
195 His faith unbroken, then, chastening with stripes
People and frenzied king, (who did desert
The Lord's best service), and with bitter flames
The foes, shut up the stars; kept in the clouds
The rain; showed all collectively that God
200 Is; made their error patent;--for a flame,
Coming with force from heaven at his prayers,
Ate up the victim's parts, dripping with flood,
Upon the altar:  --often as he willed,
So often from on high rushed fire;  the stream
205 Dividing, he made pathless passable; 
And, in a chariot raised aloft, was borne
To paradise's hall.
Elisha was, succeeding to his lot: 
Who begged to take to him Elijah's lot 
210 In double measure; so, with forceful stripe,
The People to chastise:  such and so great
A love for the Lord's cause he breathed. He smote
Through Jordan; made his feet a way, and crossed
Again; raised with a twig the axe down--sunk
215 Beneath the stream; changed into vital meat
The deathful food; detained a second time,
Double in length,  the rains; cleansed leprosies; 
Entangled foes in darkness; and when one
Offcast and dead, by bandits'slaughter slain
220 His limbs, after his death, already hid
In sepulchre, did touch, he--light recalled--
Isaiah, wealthy seer, to whom
The fount was oped,--so manifest his faith!
Poured from his mouth God's word forth. Promised was
225 The Father's will, bounteous through Christ; through him
It testified before the way of life,
And was approved:  but him, though stainless found,
And undeserving, the mad People cut
With wooden saw in twain, and took away
230 With cruel death.
The holy Jeremy
Followed; whom the Eternal's Virtue bade
Be prophet to the Gentiles, and him told
The future: who, because he brooded o'er
His People's deeds illaudable, and said
235 (Speaking with voice presaging) that, unless
They had repented of betaking them
To deeds iniquitous against their slaves, 
They should be captived, bore hard bonds, shut up
In squalid gaol; and, in the miry pit,
240 Hunger exhausted his decaying limbs.
But, after he did prove what they to hear
Had been unwilling, and the foes did lead
The People bound in their triumphal trains,
Hardly at length his wrinkled right hand lost
245 Its chains: it is agreed that by no death
Nor slaughter was the hero ta'en away.
Faithful Ezekiel, to whom granted was
Rich grace of speech, saw sinners' secrets; wailed
His own afflictions; prayed for pardon; saw
250 The vengeance of the saints, which is to be
By slaughter; and, in Spirit wrapt, the place
Of the saints' realm, its steps and accesses,
And the salvation of the flesh, he saw.
Hosea, Amos, Micah, Joel, too,
255 With Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, come;
Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai,
And Zechariah who did violence
Suffer, and Malachi--angel himself!
Are here: these are the Lord's seers; and their choir,
260 As still they sing, is heard; and equally
Their proper wreath of praise they all have earned.
How great was Daniel! What a man!
Who by their own mouth did false witnesses
Bewray, and saved a soul on a false charge
265 Condemned;  and, before that, by mouth resolved
The king's so secret dreams; foresaw how Christ
Dissolves the limbs of kingdoms; was accused
For his Lord's was made the lions' prey;
And, openly preserved  before all eyes,
270 Rested in peace.
His Three Companions, scarce
With due praise to be sung, did piously
Contemn the king's iniquitous decree,
Out of so great a number: to the flames
Their bodies given were; but they preferred,
275 For the Great Name, to yield to penalties
Themselves, than to an image stretch their palms
On bended knees. Now their o'erbrilliant faith,
Now hope outshining all things, the wild fires
Hath quencht, and vanquisht the iniquitous!
280 Ezra the seer, doctor of Law, and priest
Himself (who, after full times, back did lead
The captive People), with the Spirit filled
Of memory, restored by word of mouth
All the seers' volumes, by the fires and mould 
Great above all born from seed
Is John whose praises hardly shall we skill
To tell: the washer  of the flesh: the Lord's
Open forerunner; washer,  too, of Christ,
Himself first born again from Him: the first
290 Of the new convenant, last of the old,
Was he; and for the True Way's sake he died,
The first slain victim.
See God-Christ! behold
Alike, His Twelve-Fold Warrior-Youth!  in all
One faith, one dove, one power; the flower of men;
295 Lightening the world  with light; comrades of Christ
And apostolic men; who, speaking truth,
Heard with their ears Salvation,  with their eyes
Saw It, and handled with their hand the late
From death recovered body,  and partook
300 As fellow-guests of food therewith, as they
Themselves bear witness.
Him did Paul as well
(Forechosen apostle, and in due time sent),
When rapt into the heavens,  behold: and sent
By Him, he, with his comrade Barnabas,
305 And with the earlier associates
Joined in one league together, everywhere
Among the Gentiles hands the doctrine down
That Christ is Head, whose members are the Church,
He the salvation of the body, He
310 The members' life perennial;
He, made flesh, He, ta'en away for all, Himself first rose
Again, salvation's only hope; and gave
The norm to His disciples: they at once
All variously suffered, for His Name,
315 Unworthy penalties.
Such members bears
With beauteous body the free mother, since
She never her Lord's precepts left behind,
And in His home hath grown old, to her Lord
Ever most choice, having for His Name's sake
320 Penalties suffered. For since, barren once,
Not yet secure of her futurity,
She hath outgiven a people born of seed
Celestial, and  been spurned, and borne the spleen 
Of her own handmaid; now 'tis time to see
325 This former-barren mother have a son
The heir of her own liberty; not like
The handmaid's heir, yoked in estate to her,
Although she bare him from celestial seed
Conceived. Far be it that ye should with words
330 Unlawful, with rash voice, collectively
Without distinction, give men exemplary
(Heaven's glowing constellations, to the mass
Of men conjoined by seed alone or blood),
The rugged bondman's  name; or that one think
335 That he may speak in servile style about
A People who the mandates followèd
Of the Lord's Law. No: but we mean the troop
Of sinners, empty, mindless, who have placed
God's promises in a mistrustful heart;
340 Men vanquisht by the miserable sweet
Of present life: that troop would have been bound
Capital slavery to undergo,
By their own fault, if sin's cause shall impose
Law's yoke upon the mass. For to serve God,
345 And be whole-heartedly intent thereon,
Untainted faith, and freedom, is thereto
The just fathers, then,
And holy stainless prophets, many, sang
The future advent of the Lord; and they
350 Faithfully testify what Heaven bids
To men profane: with them the giants,  men
With Christ's own glory satiated, made
The consorts of His virtue, filling up
The hallowed words, have stablished our faith;
355 By facts predictions proving.
Of these men
Disciples who succeeded them throughout
The orb, men wholly filled with virtue's breath,
And our own masters, have assigned to us
Honours conjoined with works.
Of whom the first
360 Whom Peter bade to take his place and sit
Upon this chair in mightiest Rome where he
Himself had sat,  was Linus, great, elect,
And by the mass approved. And after him
Cletus himself the fold's flock undertook;
365 As his successor Anacletus was
By lot located: Clement follows him;
Well known was he to apostolic men: 
Next Evaristus ruled without a crime
The law.  To Sixtus Sextus Alexander
370 Commends the fold: who, after he had filled
His lustral times up, to Telesphorus
Hands it in order: excellent was he,
And martyr faithful. After him succeeds
A comrade in the law,  and master sure:
375 When lo! the comrade of your wickedness,
Its author and forerunner--Cerdo hight--
Arrived at Rome, smarting with recent wounds:
Detected, for that he was scattering
Voices and words of venom stealthily:
380 For which cause, driven from the band, he bore
This sacrilegious brood, the dragon's breath
Engendering it. Blooming in piety
United stood the Church of Rome, compact
By Peter: whose successor, too, himself,
385 And now in the ninth place, Hyginus was,
The burden undertaking of his chair.
After him followed Pius--Hermas his
Own brother  was; angelic "Pastor" he,
Because he spake the words delivered him: 
390 And Anicetus  the allotted post
In pious order undertook. 'Neath whom
Marcion here coming, the new Pontic pest,
(The secret daring deed in his own heart
Not yet disclosed,) went, speaking commonly,
395 In all directions, in his perfidy,
With lurking art. But after he began
His deadly arrows to produce, cast off
Deservedly (as author of a crime
So savage), reprobated by the saints,
400 He burst, a wondrous monster! on our view.
 Isa. liv. 1; Gal. iv. 27.
 Gal. iv. 19-31.
 The Jewish people leaving Christ, "the fountain of living waters" (Jer. ii. 13; John vii. 37-39), is compared to Hagar leaving the well, which was, we may well believe, close to Abraham's tent.
 Et tepidis errans ardenti sidere potat. See Gen. xxi. 12-20.
 See Matt. xix. 27; Mark x. 28; Luke xviii. 28.
 See Matt. xxiii. 35.
 i.e., apparently the "giants;" see Gen. vi. 4; but there is no mention of them in Enoch's time (Migne).
 i.e., over the general sinfulness.
 I suggest "translatus" for "translatum" here.
 See Gen. vii. 1.
 Loosely; 120 years is the number in Gen. vi. 3.
 Speculo vultus. The two words seem to me to go together, and, unless the second be indeed redundant, to mean perhaps a small hand-mirror, which affords more facilities for minute examination of the face than a larger fixed one.
 "Sortis;" lit. "lot," here ="the line or family chosen by lot." Compare the similar derivation of "clergy."
 I have ventured to substitute "Christo" for "Christi;" and thus, for "Cum Christi populo manifeste multa locutus," read, "Cum Christo (populo manifeste) multa locutus." The reference is to the fact, on which such special stress is laid, of the Lord's "speaking to Moses face to face, as a man speaketh with his friend." See especially Num. xii. 5-8, Deut. xxxiv. 9-12, with Deut. xviii. 17-19, Acts iii. 22, 23, vii. 37.
 The Latin in Oehler and Migne is thus: "Acceptam legem per paucos fudit in orbem;" and the reference seems to me to be to Ex. xxxii. 15-20, though the use of "orbem" for "ground" is perhaps strange; but "humum" would have been against the metre, if that argument be of any weight in the case of a writer so prolific of false quantities. Possibly the lines may mean that "he diffused through some few"--i.e., through the Jews, "few" as compared with the total inhabitants of the orb--"the Law which he had received;" but then the following line seems rather to favour the former view, because the tables of the Law--called briefly "the Law"--broken by Moses so soon after he had received them, were typical of the inefficacy of all Moses' own toils, which, after all, ended in disappointment, as he was forbidden, on account of a sin committed in the very last of the forty years, to lead the people into "the land," as he had fondly hoped to do. Only I suspect some error in "per paucos;" unless it be lawful to supply "dies," and take it to mean "received during but few days," i.e., "within few days," "only a few days before," and "accepted" or "kept" by the People "during but a few days." Would it be lawful to conjecture "perpaucis" as one word, with "ante diebus" to be understood?
 i.e., the sign of the cross. See Tertullian, adv. Marc., l. iii. c. xviii. sub. fin.; also adv. Jud., c. x. med.
 i.e., all the acts and the experiences of Moses.
 See Ex. xxiii. 20-23; and comp. adv. Marc., l. iii. c. xvi.
 Legitima, i.e., reverent of law.
 i.e., virtuous acts.
 Or, "valour."
 The Latin runs thus: "Acer in hostem. Non virtute sua tutelam acquirere genti." I have ventured to read "suæ," and connect it with "genti;" and thus have obtained what seems to me a probable sense. See Judg. viii. 22, 23.
 I read "firmandus" for "firmatus."
 I have again ventured a correction, "coarescere" for "coalescere." It makes at least some sense out of an otherwise (to me) unintelligible passage, the "palm" being taken as the well-known symbol of bloom and triumph. So David in Ps. xcii. 12 (xci. 13 in LXX.), "The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree." To "dry" here is, of course, neuter, and means to "wither."
 I have changed "eadem"--which must agree with "nocte," and hence give a false sense; for it was not, of course, on "the same night," but on the next, that this second sign was given--into "eodem," to agree with "liquore," which gives a true one, as the "moisture," of course, was the same,--dew, namely.
 Equite. It appears to be used loosely for "men of war" generally.
 Which is taken, from its form, as a sign of the cross; see below.
 Refers to the "when" in 99, above.
 Lychno. The "faces" are probably the wicks.
 "Scilicet hoc testamen erat virtutis imago."
 The text as it stands is, in Oehler:-- ..."Hic Baal Christi victoria signo Extemplo refugam devicit femina ligno;" which I would read:-- ..."Hunc Jael, Christi victoriæ signo, Extemplo," etc.
 For "hic" I would incline to read "huic."
 i.e., child.
 i.e., instead of.
 i.e., to his unshorn Nazarite locks.
 Viros ostendere Christos.
 See 1 Sam. xxviii. (in LXX. 1 Kings) 11-19.
 i.e., to whom, to David.
 "Ex utero:" a curious expression for a man; but so it is.
 i.e., emulous of David's virtues.
 Comp. especially 2 Chron. xxix.; xxx.; xxxi.
 Our author is quite correct in his order. A comparison of dates as given in the Scripture history shows us that his reforms preceded his war with Sennacherib.
 The "tactus" of the Latin is without sense, unless indeed it refer to his being twice "touched" by an angel. See 1 Kings (in LXX. 3 Kings) xix. 1-8. I have therefore substituted "raptus," there being no mention of the angel in the Latin.
 "Aras" should probably be "aram."
 See 2 Kings (in LXX. 4 Kings) i. 9-12.
 For "transgressas et avia fecit," I read "transgressus avia fecit," taking "transgressus" as a subst.
 Our author has somewhat mistaken Elisha's mission apparently; for as there is a significant difference in the meaning of their respective names, so there is in their works: Elijah's miracles being rather miracles of judgment, it has been remarked; Elisha's, of mercy.
 The reference is to a famine in Elisha's days, which--2 Kings (in LXX. 4 Kings) viii. i.--was to last seven years; whereas that for which Elijah prayed, as we learn in Jas. v. 17., lasted three and six months. But it is not said that Elisha prayed for that famine.
 We only read of one leprosy which Elisha cleansed--Naaman's. He inflicted leprosy on Gehazi, which was "to cleave to him and to his seed for ever."
 Prætestata viam vitæ atque probata per ipsam est. I suspect we should read "via," quantity being of no importance with our author, and take "prætestata" as passive: "The way of life was testified before, and proved, through him."
 This seems to be the meaning, and the reference will then be to Jer. xxxiv. 8-22 (in LXX. xli. 8-22); but the punctuation both in Oehler and Migne makes nonsense, and I have therefore altered it.
 See the apocryphal "Susanna."
 For "servatisque palam cunctis in pace quievit," which the edd. give, I suggest "servatusque," etc., and take "palam" for governing "cunctis."
 Ignibus et multa consumpta volumina vatum. Multamust, apparently, be an error for some word signifying "mould" or the like; unless, with the disregard of construction and quantity observable in this author, it be an acc. pl. to agree with volumina, so that we must take "omnia multa volumina" together, which would alter the whole construction of the context.
 Salutem =Christum. So Simeon, "Mine eyes have seen Thy salvation," where the Greek word should be noted and compared with its usage in the LXX., especially in the Psalms. See Luke ii. 30.
 Comp. 1 John i. 1, 2.
 See 2 Cor. xii. 1 sqq.
 The common reading is, "Atque suæ famulæ portavit spreta dolorem," for which Oehler reads "portarit;" but I incline rather to suggest that "portavit" be retained, but that the "atque" be changed into "aeque," thus: "Aeque suæ famulæ portavit spreta dolorem;" i.e., Since, like Sarah, the once barren Christian church-mother hath had children, equally, like Sarah, hath she had to bear scorn and spleen at her handmaid's--the Jewish church-mother's--hands.
 i.e., Ishmael's.
 "Immanes," if it be the true reading.
 This is the way Oehler's punctuation reads. Migne's reads as follows:-- ..."Of whom the first Whom mightiest Rome bade take his place and sit Upon the chair where Peter's self had sat," etc.
 "Is apostolicis bene notus." This may mean, (a) as in our text; (b) by his apostolically-minded writings--writings like an apostle's; or (c) by the apostolic writings, i.e., by the mention made of him, supposing him to be the same, in Phil. iv. 3.
 Germine frater.
 An allusion to the well-known Pastor or Shepherd of Hermas.
 Our author makes the name Anicetus. Rig. (as quoted by Oehler) observes that a comparison of the list of bishops of Rome here given with that given by Tertullian in de Præscr., c. xxxii., seems to show that this metrical piece cannot be his.
Book IV.--Of Marcion's Antitheses. 
What the Inviolable Power bids
The youthful people,  which, rich, free, and heir,
Possesses an eternal hope of praise
(By right assigned) is this: that with great zeal
5 Burning, armed with the love of peace--yet not
As teachers (Christ alone doth all things teach  ),
But as Christ's household--servants--o'er the earth
They should conduct a massive war;  should raze
The wicked's lofty towers, savage walls,
10 And threats which 'gainst the holy people's bands
Rise, and dissolve such empty sounds in air.
Wherefore we, justly speaking emulous words, 
Out of his  own words even strive to express
The meaning of salvation's records,  which
15 Large grace hath poured profusely; and to ope
To the saints' eyes the Bandit's  covert plague:
Lest any untrained, daring, ignorant,
Fall therein unawares, and (being caught)
Forfeit celestial gifts.
God, then, is One
20 To mortals all and everywhere; a Realm
Eternal, Origin of light profound;
Life's Fount; a Draught fraught  with all wisdom. He
Produced the orb whose bosom all things girds;
Him not a region, not a place, includes as
25 In circuit: matter none perennial is, 
So as to be self-made, or to have been
Ever, created by no Maker: heaven's,
Earth's, sea's, and the abyss's  Settler  is
The Spirit; air's Divider, Builder, Author,
30 Sole God perpetual, Power immense, is He. 
Him had the Law the People  shown to be
One God,  whose mighty voice to Moses spake
Upon the mount. Him this His Virtue, too,
His Wisdom, Glory, Word, and Son, this Light
35 Begotten from the Light immense,  proclaims
Through the seers' voices, to be One: and Paul, 
Taking the theme in order up, thus too
Himself delivers; "Father there is One 
Through whom were all things made: Christ One, through whom
40 God all things made;"  to whom he plainly owns
That every knee doth bow itself;  of whom
Is every fatherhood  in heaven and earth
Called: who is zealous with the highest love
Of parent-care His people-ward; and wills
45 All flesh to live in holy wise, and wills
His people to appear before Him pure
Without a crime. With such zeal, by a law 
Guards He our safety; warns us loyal be;
Chastens; is instant. So, too, has the same
50 Apostle (when Galatian brethren
Chiding)--Paul--written that such zeal hath he. 
The fathers'sins God freely rendered, then,
Slaying in whelming deluge utterly Parents alike with progeny, and e'en
55 Grandchildren in "fourth generation"  now
Descended from the parent-stock, when He
Has then for nearly these nine hundred years
Assisted them. Hard does the judgment seem?
The sentence savage? And in Sodom, too,
60 That the still guiltless little one unarmed
And tender should lose life: for what had e'er
The infant sinned? What cruel thou mayst think,
Is parent-care's true duty. Lest misdeed
Should further grow, crime's authors He did quench,
65 And sinful parents' brood. But, with his sires,
The harmless infant pays not penalties
Perpetual, ignorant and not advanced
In crime: but lest he partner should become
Of adult age's guilt, death immature
70 Undid spontaneous future ills.
Bids God libation to be poured to Him
With blood of sheep? and takes so stringent means
By Law, that, in the People, none transgress
Erringly, threatening them with instant death
75 By stoning? and why reprobates, again,
These gifts of theirs, and says they are to Him
Unwelcome, while He chides a People prest
With swarm of sin?  Does He, the truthful, bid,
And He, the just, at the same time repel?
80 The causes if thou seekst, cease to be moved
Erringly: for faith's cause is weightier
Than fancied reason.  Through a mirror  --shade
Of fulgent light!--behold what the calf's blood,
The heifer's ashes, and each goat, do mean:
85 The one dismissed goes off, the other falls
A victim at the temple.
With calf's blood
With water mixt the seer  (thus from on high
Bidden) besprinkled People, vessels all,
Priests, and the written volumes of the Law.
90 See here not their true hope, nor yet a mere
Semblance devoid of virtue:  but behold
In the calf's type Christ destined bodily
To suffer; who upon His shoulders bare
The plough-beam's hard yokes,  and with fortitude
95 Brake His own heart with the steel share, and poured
Into the furrows water of His own
Life's blood. For these "temple-vessels" do
Denote our bodies: God's true temple  He,
Not dedicated erst; for to Himself
100 He by His blood associated men,
And willed them be His body's priests, Himself
The Supreme Father's perfect Priest by right.
Hearing, sight, step inert, He cleansed; and, for a "book," 
Sprinkled, by speaking  words of presage, those
105 His witnesses: demonstrating the Law
Bound by His holy blood.
This cause withal
Our victim through "the heifer" manifests
From whose blood taking for the People's sake
Piacular drops, them the first Levite  bare
110 Within the veil; and, by God's bidding, burned
Her corse without the camp's gates; with whose ash
He cleansed lapsed bodies.
Thus our Lord (who us
By His own death redeemed), without the camp 
Willingly suffering the violence
115 Of an iniquitous People, did fulfil
The Law, by facts predictions proving;  who
A people of contamination full
Doth truly cleanse, conceding all things, as
The body's Author rich; within heaven's veil
120 Gone with the blood which--One for many's deaths--
He hath outpoured.
A holy victim, then,
Is meet for a great priest; which worthily
He, being perfect, may be proved to have,
And offer. He a body hath: this is
125 For mortals a live victim; worthy this
Of great price did He offer, One for all.
The  semblance of the "goats" teaches that they
Are men exiled out of the "peoples twain" 
As barren;  fruitless both; (of whom the Lord
130 Spake also, in the Gospel, telling how
The kids are severed from the sheep, and stand
On the left hand  ): that some indeed there are
Who for the Lord's Name's sake have suffered: thus
That fruit has veiled their former barrenness:
135 And such, the prophet teaches, on the ground
Of that their final merit worthy are
Of the Lord's altar: others, cast away
(As was th' iniquitous rich man, we read,
By Lazarus  ), are such as have remained
140 Exiled, persistent in their stubbornness.
Now a veil, hanging in the midst, did both
Dissever,  and had into portions twain
Divided the one shrine.  The inner parts
Were called "Holies of holies." Stationed there
145 An altar shone, noble with gold; and there,
At the same time, the testaments and ark
Of the Law's tablets; covered wholly o'er
With lambs'skins  dyed with heaven's hue; within
Gold-clad;  and all between of wood. Here are so
150 The tablets of the Law; here is the urn
Replete with manna; here is Aaron's rod
Which puts forth germens of the cross  --unlike
The cross itself, yet born of storax-tree  --And over it--in uniformity
155 Fourfold--the cherubim their pinions spread,
And the inviolable sanctities 
Covered obediently.  Without the veil
Part of the shrine stood open: facing it,
Heavy with broad brass, did an altar stand;
160 And with two triple sets (on each side one)
Of branches woven with the central stem,
A lampstand, and as many  lamps:
The golden substance wholly filled with light
The temple. 
Thus the temple's outer face,
165 Common and open, does the ritual
Denote, then, of a people lingering
Beneath the Law; amid whose  gloom there shone
The Holy Spirit's sevenfold unity
Ever, the People sheltering.  And thus
170 The Lampstand True and living Lamps do shine
Persistently throughout the Law and Seers
On men subdued in heart. And for a type
Of earth,  the altar--so tradition says--
Was made. Here constantly, in open space,
175 Before all eyes were visible of old
The People's "works,"  which ever--"not without
Blood"  --it did offer, shedding out the gore
Of lawless life.  There, too, the Lord--Himself
Made victim on behalf of all--denotes
180 The whole earth  --altar in specific sense.
Hence likewise that new covenant author, whom
No language can describe, Disciple John,
Testifies that beneath such altar he
Saw souls which had for Christ's name suffered,
185 Praying the vengeance of the mighty God
Upon their slaughter.  There,  meantime, is rest.
In some unknown part there exists a spot
Open, enjoying its own light; 'tis called
"Abraham's bosom;" high above the glooms, 
190 And far removed from fire, yet 'neath the earth. 
The brazen altar this is called, whereon
(We have recorded) was a dusky veil. 
This veil divides both parts, and leaves the one
Open, from the eternal one distinct
195 In worship and time's usage. To itself
Tis not unfriendly, though of fainter love,
By time and space divided, and yet linked
By reason. 'Tis one house, though by a veil
Parted it seems: and thus (when the veil burst,
200 On the Lord's passion) heavenly regions oped
And holy vaults,  and what was double erst
Became one house perennial.
Traditionally has interpreted
The inner temple of the people called
205 After Christ's Name, with worship heavenly,
God's actual mandates following; (no "shade"
Is herein bound, but persons real;  ) complete
By the arrival of the "perfect things." 
The ark beneath a type points out to us
210 Christ's venerable body, joined, through "wood," 
With sacred Spirit: the aërial  skins
Are flesh not born of seed, outstretcht on "wood;" 
At the same time, with golden semblance fused, 
Within, the glowing Spirit joined is
215 Thereto; that, with peace  granted, flesh might bloom
With Spirit mixt. Of the Lord's flesh, again,
The urn, golden and full, a type doth bear.
Itself denotes that the new covenant's Lord
Is manna; in that He, true heavenly Bread,
220 Is, and hath by the Father been transfused 
Into that bread which He hath to His saints
Assigned for a pledge: this Bread will He
Give perfectly to them who (of good works
The lovers ever) have the bonds of peace
225 Kept. And the double tablets of the law
Written all over, these, at the same time,
Signify that that Law was ever hid
In Christ, who mandate old and new fulfilled,
Ark of the Supreme Father as He is,
230 Through whom He, being rich, hath all things given.
The storax-rod, too, nut's fruit bare itself;
(The virgin's semblance this, who bare in blood
A body:) on the "wood"  conjoined 'twill lull
Death's bitter, which within sweet fruit doth lurk,
235 By virtue of the Holy Spirit's grace:
Just as Isaiah did predict "a rod"
From Jesse's seed  --Mary--from which a flower
Issues into the orb.
The altar bright with gold
Denotes the heaven on high, whither ascend
240 Prayers holy, sent up without crime: the Lord
This "altar" spake of, where if one doth gifts
Offer, he must first reconciliate
Peace with his brother:  thus at length his prayers
Can flame unto the stars. Christ, Victor sole
245 And foremost.  Priest, thus offered incense born
Not of a tree, but prayers. 
The cherubim 
Being, with twice two countenances, one,
And are the one word through fourfold order led; 
The hoped comforts of life's mandate new,
250 Which in their plenitude Christ bare Himself
Unto us from the Father. But the wings
In number four times six,  the heraldings
Of the old world denote, witnessing things
Which, we are taught, were after done. On these 
255 The heavenly words fly through the orb: with these
Christ's blood is likewise held context, so told
Obscurely by the seers' presaging mouth.
The number of the wings doth set a seal
Upon the ancient volumes; teaching us
260 Those twenty-four have certainly enough
Which sang the Lord's ways and the times of peace:
These all, we see, with the new covenant
Cohere. Thus also John; the Spirit thus
To him reveals that in that number stand
265 The enthroned elders white  and crowned, who (as
With girding-rope) all things surround, before
The Lord's throne, and upon the glassy sea
Subigneous: and four living creatures, winged
And full of eyes within and outwardly,
270 Do signify that hidden things are oped,
And all things shut are at the same time seen,
In the word's eye. The glassy flame-mixt sea
Means that the laver's gifts, with Spirit fused
Therein, upon believers are conferred.
275 Who could e'en tell what the Lord's parent-care
Before His judgment-seat, before His bar,
Prepared hath? that such as willing be
His forum and His judgment for themselves
To antedate, should 'scape! that who thus hastes
280 Might find abundant opportunity!
Thus therefore Law and wondrous prophets sang;
Thus all parts of the covenant old and new,
Those sacred rights and pregnant utterances
Of words, conjoined, do flourish. Thus withal,
285 Apostles' voices witness everywhere;
Nor aught of old, in fine, but to the new
Thus err they, and thus facts retort
Their sayings, who to false ways have declined;
And from the Lord and God, eternal King,
290 Who such an orb produced, detract, and seek
Some other deity 'neath feigned name,
Bereft of minds, which (frenzied) they have lost;
Willing to affirm that Christ a stranger is
To the Law; nor is the world's  Lord; nor doth will
295 Salvation of the flesh; nor was Himself
The body's Maker, by the Father's power. 
Them must we flee, stopping (unasked) our ears;
Lest with their speech they stain innoxious hearts.
Let therefore us, whom so great grace  of God
300 Hath penetrated, and the true celestial words
Of the great Master-Teacher in good ways
Have trained, and given us right monuments; 
Pay honour ever to the Lord, and sing
Endlessly, joying in pure faith, and sure
305 Salvation. Born of the true God, with bread
Perennial are we nourished, and hope
With our whole heart after eternal life.
 The state of the text in some parts of this book is frightful. It has been almost hopeless to extract any sense whatever out of the Latin in many passages--indeed, the renderings are in these cases little better than guess-work--and the confusion of images, ideas, and quotations is extraordinary.
 See the preceding book.
 I have changed the unintelligible "daret" of the edd. into "docet." The reference seems to be to Matt. xxiii. 8; Jas. iii. 1; 1 Pet. v. 2, 3.
 Molem belli deducere terræ.
 Æmulamenta. Migne seems to think the word refers to Marcion's "Antitheses."
 i.e., apparently Marcion's.
 See the opening of the preceding book.
 "Conditus;" i.e., probably (in violation of quantity) the past part. of "condio" = flavoured, seasoned.
 I have altered the punctuation here.
 These lines are capable, according to their punctuation, of various renderings, which for brevity's sake I must be content to omit.
 i.e., the People of Israel. See the de Idol., p. 148, c. v. note 1.
 See Deut. vi. 3, 4, quoted in Mark xii. 29, 30.
 This savours of the Nicene Creed.
 Migne's pointing is followed, in preference to Oehler's.
 "Unum hunc esse Patrem;" i.e., "that this One (God) is the Father." But I rather incline to read, "unumque esse;" or we may render, "This One is the Sire."
 See 1 Cor. viii. 5, 6 (but notice the prepositions in the Greek; our author is not accurate in rendering them); Eph. iv. 4, 5, 6.
 Ad quem se curvare genu plane omne fatetur. The reference is to Phil. ii. 10; but our author is careless in using the present tense, "se curvare."
 The reference is to Eph. iii. 14, 15; but here again our author seems in error, as he refers the words to Christ, whereas the meaning of the apostle appears clearly to refer them tothe Father.
 Legitimos. See book iv. 91.
 See Gal. iii. 20. But here, again, "Galatas" seems rather like an error; for in speaking to the Corinthians St. Paul uses an expression more like our author's: see 2 Cor. xi. 2. The Latin, too, is faulty: "Talem se Paulus zelum se scripsit habere," where, perhaps, for the first "se" we should read "sic."
 Comp. Ex. xx. 5; Deut. v. 9.
 See Isa. i. 10-15; Jer. vi. 20.
 Causa etenim fidei rationis imagine major.
 Comp. 1 Cor. xiii. 12; Heb. x. 1.
 Moses. See Heb. ix. 19-22, and the references there.
 Comp. Heb. ix. 13.
 Alluding probably to our Lord's bearing of the cross-beam of His cross--the beam being the "yokes," and the upright stem of the cross the "plough-beam"--on His shoulders.--See John xix. 17.
 Templum. Comp. John ii. 19-22; Col. ii. 9.
 Libro. The reference is to the preceding lines, especially 89, and Heb. ix. 19, auto to biblion. The use of "libro" is curious, as it seems to be used partly as if it would be equivalent to pro libro, "in the place of a book," partly in a more truly datival sense, "to serve the purposes of a book;" and our "for" is capable of the two senses.
 For this comparison of "speaking" to "sprinkling," comp. Deut. xxxii. 2, "My doctrine shall drop as the rain; my speech shall distil as the dew," etc.; Job xxix. 22, "My speech dropped upon them;" with Eph. v. 26, and with our Lord's significant action (recorded in the passage here alluded to, John xx. 22) of "breathing on" (enephusesen) His disciples. Comp., too, for the "witnesses" and "words of presage," Luke xxiv. 48, 49; Acts i. 6-8.
 i.e., the chief of the Levites, the high priest.
 Comp. Heb. xiii. 12, 13; John xix. 19, 20.
 Comp. the preceding book, 355.
 The passage which follows is almost unintelligible. The sense which I have offered in my text is so offered with great diffidence, as I am far from certain of having hit the meaning; indeed, the state of the text is such, that any meaning must be a matter of some uncertainty.
 i.e., perhaps the Jewish and Christian peoples. Comp. adv. Jud., c. 1.
 i.e., "barren" of faith and good works. The "goats" being but "kids" (see Lev. xvi. 8), would, of course, be barren. "Exiled" seems to mean "excommunicated." But the comparison of the sacrificed goat to a penitent, and of the scapegoat to an impenitent, excommunicate, is extravagant. Yet I see no other sense.
 See Matt. xxv. 31-33.
 i.e., Lazarus was not allowed to help him. In that sense he may be said to have been "cast away;" but it is Abraham, not Lazarus, who pronounces his doom. See Luke xvi. 19-31.
 i.e., in that the blood of the one was brought within the veil; the other was not.
 The meaning seems to be, that the ark, when it had to be removed from place to place, had (as we learn from Num. iv. 5) to be covered with "the second veil" (as it is called in Heb. ix. 3), which was "of blue," etc. But that this veil was made "of lambs' skins" does not appear; on the contrary, it was made of "linen." The outer veil, indeed (not the outmost, which was of "badgers' skins," according to the Eng. ver.; but of "huakinthina dermata"--of what material is not said--according to the LXX.), was made "of rams' skins;" but then they were "dyed red" (heruthrodanomena, LXX.), not "blue." So there is some confusion in our author.
 The ark was overlaid with gold without as well as within. (See Ex. xxv. 10, 11; xxxvii. 1, 2; and this is referred to in Heb. ix. 3, 4--kiboton...perikekalummenen--where our Eng. ver. rendering is defective, and in the context as well.) This, however, may be said to be implied in the following words: "and all between," i.e., between the layers above and beneath, "of wood."
 Migne supposes some error in these words. Certainly the sense is dark enough; but see lower down.
 It yielded "almonds," according to the Eng. ver. (Num. xvii. 8). But see the LXX.
 Sagmina. But the word is a very strange one to use indeed. See the Latin Lexicons, s.v.
 It might be questionable whether "jussa" refers to "cherubim" or to "sagmina."
 i.e., twice three + the central one = 7.
 Our author persists in calling the tabernacle temple.
 i.e., the Law's.
 "Tegebat," i.e., with the "fiery-cloudy pillar," unless it be an error for "regebat," which still might apply to the pillar.
 "Operæ," i.e., sacrifices. The Latin is a hopeless jumble of words without grammatical sequence, and any rendering is mere guesswork.
 Heb. ix. 7.
 i.e., of animals which, as irrational, were "without the Law."
 Rev. vi. 9, 10.
 i.e., beneath the altar. See the 11th verse ib.
 Or possibly, "deeper than the glooms:" "altior a tenebris."
 See 141, 142, above.
 Cælataque sancta. We might conjecture "celataque sancta," ="and the sanctuaries formerly hidden."
 This sense appears intelligible, as the writer's aim seems to be to distinguish between the "actual" commands of God, i.e., the spiritual, essential ones, which the spiritual people "follow," and which "bind"--not the ceremonial observance of a "shadow of the future blessings" (see Heb. x. 1), but "real persons," i.e., living souls. But, as Migne has said, the passage is probably faulty and mutilated.
 Comp. Heb. vii. 19; x. 1; xi. 11, 12.
 "Lignum:" here probably ="the flesh," which He took from Mary; the "rod" (according to our author) which Isaiah had foretold.
 Aërial, i.e., as he said above, "dyed with heaven's hue."
 "Ligno," i.e., "the cross," represented by the "wood" of which the tabernacle's boards, on which the coverings were stretched (but comp. 147-8, above), were made.
 As the flame of the lamps appeared to grow out of and be fused with the "golden semblance" or "form" of the lampstand or candlestick.
 Of which the olive--of which the pure oil for the lamps was to be made: Ex. xxvii. 20; Lev. xxiv. 2--is a type. "Peace" is granted to "the flesh" through Christ's work and death in flesh.
 In ligno. The passage is again in an almost desperate state.
 Isa. xi. 1, 2.
 Matt. v. 23, 24.
 See Rev. viii. 3, 4.
 Here ensues a confused medley of all the cherubic figures of Moses, Ezekiel, and St. John.
 i.e., by the four evangelists.
 The cherubim, (or, "seraphim" rather,) of Isa. vi. have each six wings. Ezekiel mentions four cherubim, or "living creatures." St. John likewise mentions four "living creatures." Our author, combining the passages, and thrusting them into the subject of the Mosaic cherubim, multiplies the six (wings) by the four (cherubs), and so attains his end--the desired number "twenty-four"--to represent the books of the Old Testament, which (by combining certain books) may be reckoned to be twenty-four in number.
 These wings.
 There is again some great confusion in the text. The elders could not "stand enthroned:" nor do they stand "over," but "around" God's throne; so that the "insuper solio" could not apply to that.
 Or, "records:" "monumenta," i.e., the written word, according to the canon.
Book V.--General Reply to Sundry of Marcion's Heresies. 
The first Book did the enemy's words recall
In order, which the senseless renegade
Composed and put forth lawlessly; hence, too,
Touched briefly flesh's hope, Christ's victory,
5 And false ways' speciousness. The next doth teach
The Law's conjoined mysteries, and what
In the new covenant the one God hath
Delivered. The third shows the race, create
From freeborn mother, to be ministers
10 Sacred to seers and patriarchs;  whom Thou,
O Christ, in number twice six out of all, 
Chosest; and, with their names, the lustral  times
Of our own elders noted, (times preserved
On record,) showing in whose days appeared
15 The author  of this wickedness, unknown,
Lawless, and roaming, cast forth  with his brood.
The fourth, too, the piacular rites recalls
Of the old Law themselves, and shows them types
In which the Victim True appeared, by saints
20 Expected long since, with the holy Seed.
This fifth doth many twists and knots untie,
Rolls wholly into sight what ills soe'er
Were lurking; drawing arguments, but not
Without attesting prophet.
25 With strong arms fortified we vanquish foes,
Yet hath the serpent mingled so at once
All things polluted, impious, unallowed,
Commaculate,--the blind's path without light!
A voice contaminant!--that, all the while
30 We are contending the world's Maker is
Himself sole God, who also spake by voice
Of seers, and proving that there is none else
Unknown; and, while pursuing Him with praise,
Who is by various endearment  known,
35 Are blaming--among other fallacies--
The Unknown's tardy times: our subject's fault
Will scarce keep pure our tongue. Yet, for all that,
Guile's many hidden venoms us enforce
(Although with double risk  ) to ope our words.
40 Who, then, the God whom ye say is the true,
Unknown to peoples, alien, in a word,
To all the world?  Him whom none knew before?
Came he from high? If 'tis his own  he seeks,
Why seek so late? If not his own, why rob
45 Bandit-like? and why ply with words unknown
So oft throughout Law's rein a People still
Lingering 'neath the Law? If, too, he comes
To pity and to succour all combined,
And to re-elevate men vanquisht quite
50 By death's funereal weight, and to release
Spirit from flesh's bond obscene, whereby
The inner man (iniquitously dwarfed)
Is held in check; why, then, so late appear
His ever-kindness, duteous vigilance?
55 How comes it that he ne'er at all before
Offered himself to any, but let slip
Poor souls in numbers?  and then with his mouth
Seeks to regain another's subjects: ne'er
Expected; not known; sent into the orb.
60 Seeking the "ewe" he had not lost before,
The Shepherd ought  to have disrobed himself
Of flesh, as if his victor-self withal
Had ever been a spirit, and as such 
Willed to rescue all expelled souls,
65 Without a body, everywhere, and leave
The spoiled flesh to earth; wholly to fill
The world  on one day equally with corpses
To leave the orb void; and to raise the souls
To heaven. Then would human progeny
70 At once have ceased to be born; nor had
Thereafter any scion of your  kith
Been born, or spread a new pest  o'er the orb.
Or (since at that time  none of all these things
Is shown to have been done) he should have set
75 A bound to future race; with solid heart
Nuptial embraces would he, in that case
Have sated quite;  made men grow torpid, reft
Of fruitful seed; made irksome intercourse
With female sex; and closed up inwardly
80 The flesh's organs genital: our mind
Had had no will, no potent faculty
Our body: after this the "inner man"
Could withal, joined with blood,  have been infused
And cleaved to flesh, and would have ever been
85 Perishing. Ever perishes the "ewe:"
And is there then no power of saving her?
Since man is ever being born beneath
Death's doom, what is the Shepherd's work, if thus
The "ewe" is stated  to be found? Unsought
90 In that case, but not rescued, she is proved.
But now choice is allowed of entering
Wedlock, as hath been ever; and that choice
Sure progeny hath yoked: nations are born
And folk scarce numerable, at whose birth
95 Their souls by living bodies are received;
Nor was it meet that Paul (though, for the time,
He did exhort some few, discerning well
The many pressures of a straitened time)
To counsel men in like case to abide
100 As he himself:  for elsewhere he has bidden
The tender ages marry, nor defraud
Each other, but their compact's dues discharge.
But say, whose suasion hath, with fraud astute,
Made you "abide," and in divided love
105 Of offspring live secure, and commit crime
Adulterous, and lose your life? and, though
'Tis perishing, belie (by verbal name)
That fact. For which cause all the so sweet sounds
Of his voice pours he forth, that "you must do,
110 Undaunted, whatsoever pleases you;"
Outwardly chaste, stealthily stained with crime!
Of honourable wedlock, by this plea, 
He hath deprived you. But why more? 'Tis well
(Forsooth) to be disjoined! for the world, too,
115 Expedient 'tis! lest any of your seed
Be born! Then will death's organs  cease at length!
The while you hope salvation to retain,
Your "total man" quite loses part of man,
With mind profane: but neither is man said
120 To be sole spirit, nor the flesh is called
"The old man;" nor unfriendly are the flesh
And spirit, the true man combined in one,
The inner, and he whom you call "old foe;" 
Nor are they seen to have each his own set
125 Of senses. One is ruled; the other rules,
Groans, joys, grieves, loves; himself  to his own flesh
Most dear, too; through which  his humanity
Is visible, with which commixt he is
Held ever: to its wounds he care applies;
130 And pours forth tears; and nutriments of food
Takes, through its limbs, often and eagerly:
This hopes he to have ever with himself
Immortal; o'er its fracture doth he groan;
And grieves to quit it limb by limb: fixt time
135 Death lords it o'er the unhappy flesh; that so
From light dust it may be renewed, and death
Unfriendly fail at length, when flesh, released,
Rises again. This will that victory be
Supreme and long expected, wrought by Him,
140 The aye-to-be-revered, who did become
True man; and by His Father's virtue won:
Who man's redeemed limbs unto the heavens
Hath raised,  and richly opened access up
Thither in hope, first to His nation; then
145 To those among all tongues in whom His work
Is ever doing: Minister imbued
With His Sire's parent-care, seen by the eye
Of the Illimitable, He performed,
By suffering, His missions. 
What say now
150 The impious voices? what th' abandoned crew?
If He Himself, God the Creator's self,
Gave not the Law,  He who from Egypt's vale 
Paved in the waves a path, and freely gave
The seats which He had said of old, why comes
155 He in that very People and that land
Aforesaid? and why rather sought He not
Some other  peoples or some rival  realms?
Why, further, did He teach that, through the seers,
(With Name foretold in full, yet not His own,)
160 He had been often sung of? Whence, again,
Could He have issued baptism's kindly gifts,
Promised by some one else, as His own works?
These gifts men who God's mandates had transgressed,
And hence were found polluted, longed for,
165 And begged a pardoning rescue from fierce death.
Expected long, they  came: but that to those
Who recognised them when erst heard, and now
Have recognised them, when in due time found,
Christ's true hand is to give them, this, with voice
170 Paternal, the Creator-Sire Himself
Warns ever from eternity, and claims;
And thus the work of virtue which He framed,
And still frames, arms, and fosters, and doth now
Victorious look down on and reclothe
175 With His own light, should with perennial praise
What  hath the Living Power done
To make men recognise what God can give
And man can suffer, and thus live?  But since
Neither predictions earlier nor facts
180 The latest can suede senseless frantic  men
That God became a man, and (after He
Had suffered and been buried) rose; that they
May credit those so many witnesses
Harmonious,  who of old did cry aloud
185 With heavenly word, let them both  learn to trust
At least terrestrial reason.
When the Lord
Christ came to be, as flesh, born into the orb
In time of king Augustus' reign at Rome,
First, by decree, the nations numbered are
190 By census everywhere: this measure, then,
This same king chanced to pass, because the
Supreme, in whose high reigning hand doth lie
The king's heart, had impelled him:  he was first
To do it, and the enrolment was reduced
195 To orderly arrangement. Joseph then
Likewise, with his but just delivered wife
Mary,  with her celestial Son alike,
Themselves withal are numbered. Let, then, such
As trust to instruments of human skill,
200 Who may (approving of applying them
As attestators of the holy word)
Inquire into this census, if it be
But found so as we say, then afterwards
Repent they and seek pardon while time still
205 Is had 
The Jews, who own  to having wrought
A grave crime, while in our disparagement
They glow, and do resist us, neither call
Christ's family unknown, nor can  affirm
They hanged a man, who spake truth, on a tree: 
210 Ignorant that the Lord's flesh which they bound 
Was not seed-gendered. But, while partially
They keep a reticence, so partially
They triumph; for they strive to represent
God to the peoples commonly as man.
215 Behold the error which o'ercomes you both! 
This error will our cause assist, the while,
We prove to you those things which certain are.
They do deny Him God; you falsely call
Him man, a body bodiless! and ah!
220 A various insanity of mind
Sinks you; which him who hath presumed to hint
You both do, sinking, sprinkle:  for His deeds
Will then approve Him man alike and God
Commingled, and the world  will furnish signs
225 No few.
While then the Son Himself of God
Is seeking to regain the flesh's limbs, 
Already robed as King, He doth sustain
Blows from rude palms; with spitting covered is
His face; a thorn-inwoven crown His head
230 Pierces all round; and to the tree  Himself
Is fixed; wine drugged with myrrh,  is drunk, and gall 
Is mixt with vinegar; parted His robe, 
And in it  lots are cast; what for himself
Each one hath seized he keeps; in murky gloom,
235 As God from fleshly body silently
Outbreathes His soul, in darkness trembling day
Took refuge with the sun; twice dawned one day;
Its centre black night covered: from their base
Mounts move in circle, wholly moved was earth,
240 Saints' sepulchres stood ope, and all things joined
In fear to see His passion whom they knew!
His lifeless side a soldier with bare spear
Pierces, and forth flows blood, nor water less
Thence followed. These facts they  agree to hide,
245 And are unwilling the misdeed to own,
Willing to blink the crime.
Can spirit, then,
Without a body wear a robe? or is't
Susceptible of penalty? the wound
Of violence does it bear? or die? or rise?
250 Is blood thence poured? from what flesh. since ye say
He had none? or else, rather, feigned He? if
'Tis safe for you to say so; though you do
(Headlong) so say, by passing over more
In silence. Is not, then, faith manifest?
255 And are not all things fixed? The day before
He then  should suffer, keeping Passover,
And handing down a memorable rite 
To His disciples, taking bread alike
And the vine's juice, "My body, and My blood
260 Which is poured  for you, this is," did He say;
And bade it ever afterward be done.
Of what created elements were made,
Think ye, the bread and wine which were (He said)
His body with its blood? and what must be
265 Confessed? Proved He not Himself the world's 
Maker, through deeds? and that He bore at once
A body formed from flesh and blood?
This true Man, too, the Father's Virtue 'neath
An Image,  with the Father ever was,
270 United both in glory and in age; 
Because alone He ministers the words
Of the All-Holder; whom He  upon earth
Accepts;  through whom He all things did create:
God's Son, God's dearest Minister, is He!
275 Hence hath He generation, hence Name too,
Hence, finally, a kingdom; Lord from Lord;
Stream from perennial Fount! He, He it was
Who to the holy fathers (whosoe'er
Among them doth profess to have "seen God"  )--
280 God is our witness--since the origin
Of this our world,  appearing, opened up
The Father's words of promise and of charge
From heaven high: He led the People out;
Smote through th'iniquitous nation; was Himself
285 The column both of light and of cloud's shade;
And dried the sea; and bids the People go
Right through the waves, the foe therein involved
And covered with the flood and surge: a way
Through deserts made He for the followers
290 Of His high biddings; sent down bread in showers 
From heaven for the People; brake the rock;
Bedewed with wave the thirsty;  and from God
The mandate of the Law to Moses spake
With thunder, trumpet-sound, and flamey column
295 Terrible to the sight, while men's hearts shook.
After twice twenty years, with months complete,
Jordan was parted; a way oped; the wave
Stood in a mass; and the tribes shared the land,
Their fathers' promised boons! The Father's word,
300 Speaking Himself by prophets' mouth, that He 
Would come to earth and be a man, He did
Predict; Christ manifestly to the earth
Then, expected for our aid,
Life's only Hope, the Cleanser of our flesh, 
305 Death's Router, from th' Almighty Sire's empire
At length He came, and with our human limbs
He clothed Him. Adam--virgin--dragon--tree, 
The cause of ruin, and the way whereby
Rash death us all had vanquisht! by the same
310 Our Shepherd treading, seeking to regain
His sheep--with angel--virgin--His own flesh--
And the "tree's" remedy;  whence vanquisht man
And doomed to perish was aye wont to go
To meet his vanquisht peers; hence, interposed,
315 One in all captives' room, He did sustain
In body the unfriendly penalty
With patience; by His own death spoiling death;
Becomes salvation's cause; and, having paid
Throughly our debts by throughly suffering
320 On earth, in holy body, everything,
Seeks the infern! here souls, bound for their crime,
Which shut up all together by Law's weight,
Without a guard,  were asking for the boons
Promised of old, hoped for, and tardy, He
325 To the saints'rest admitted, and, with light,
Brought back. For on the third day mounting up, 
A victor, with His body by His Sire's
Virtue immense, (salvation's pathway made,)
And bearing God and man is form create,
330 He clomb the heavens, leading back with Him
Captivity's first-fruits (a welcome gift
And a dear figure  to the Lord), and took
His seat beside light's Father, and resumed
The virtue and the glory of which, while
335 He was engaged in vanquishing the foe
He had been stripped;  conjoined with Spirit; bound
With flesh, on our part. Him, Lord, Christ, King, God,
Judgment and kingdom given to His hand,
The father is to send unto the orb.
 I make no apology for the ruggedness of the versification and the obscurity of the sense in this book, further than to say that the state of the Latin text is such as to render it almost impossible to find any sense at all in many places, while the grammar and metre are not reducible to any known laws. It is about the hardest and most uninteresting book of the five.
 Or, "consecrated by seers and patriarchs."
 i.e., all the number of Thy disciples.
 Tempora lustri, i.e., apparently the times during which these "elders" (i.e., the bishops, of whom a list is given at the end of book iii.) held office. "Lustrum" is used of other periods than it strictly implies, and this seems to give some sense to this difficult passage.
 i.e., Marcion.
 i.e., excommunicated.
 Complexu vario.
 Ancipiti quamquam cum crimine. The last word seems almost ="discrimine;" just as our author uses "cerno" ="discerno."
 Cf. John i. 11, and see the Greek.
 Whether this be the sense I know not. The passage is a mass of confusion.
 i.e., according to Marcion's view.
 i.e., as spirits, like himself.
 i.e., Marcionite.
 See book ii. 3.
 i.e., apparently on the day of Christ's resurrection.
 Replesset, i.e., replevisset. If this be the right reading, the meaning would seem to be, "would have taken away all further desire for" them, as satiety or repletion takes away all appetite for food. One is almost inclined to hazard the suggestion "represset," i.e., repressisset, "he would have repressed," but that such a contraction would be irregular. Yet, with an author who takes such liberties as the present one, perhaps that might not be a decisive objection.
 "Junctus," for the edd.'s "junctis," which, if retained, will mean "in the case of beings still joined with (or to) blood."
 "Docetur," for the edd.'s "docentur." The sense seems to be, if there be any, exceedingly obscure; but for the idea of a half-salvation--the salvation of the "inner man" without the outer--being no salvation at all, and unworthy of "the Good Shepherd" and His work, we may compare the very difficult passage in the de Pudic., c. xiii. ad fin.
 This sense, which I deduce from a transposition of one line and the supplying of the words "he did exhort," which are not expressed, but seem necessary, in the original, agrees well with 1 Cor. vii., which is plainly the passage referred to.
 "Causa;" or perhaps "means." It is, of course, the French "chose."
 i.e., you and your like, through whom sin, and in consequence death, is disseminated.
 Here, again, for the sake of the sense, I have transposed a line.
 i.e., "the other," the "inner man," or spirit.
 i.e., through flesh.
 i.e., in His own person.
 I hope I have succeeded in giving some intelligible sense; but the passage as it stands in the Latin is nearly hopeless.
 I read "legem" for "leges."
 I read "valle" for "calle."
 i.e., "the gifts of baptism."
 This seems to give sense to a very obscure passage, in which I have been guided more by Migne's pointing than by Oehler's.
 I read here "quid" for "quod."
 i.e., to make men live by recognising that. Comp. the Psalmist's prayer: "Give me understanding and I shall live" (Ps. cxix. 144; in LXX., Ps. cxviii. 144).
 The "furentes" of Pam. and Rig. is preferred to Oehler's "ferentes."
 "Complexis," lit. "embracing."
 i.e., both Jews and Gentile heretics, the "senseless frantic men" just referred to probably: or possibly the "ambo" may mean "both sects," viz., the Marcionites and Manichees, against whom the writer whom Oehler supposes to be the probable author of these "Five Books," Victorinus, a rhetorician of Marseilles, directed his efforts. But it may again be the acc. neut. pl., and mean "let them"--i.e., the "senseless frantic men"--"learn to believe as to both facts," i.e., the incarnation and the resurrection; (see vers. 179, 180;) "the testimony at least of human reason."
 I would suggest here, for "...quia summa voluntas In cujus manu regnantis cor legibus esset," something like this, "...quia summa voluntas, In cujus manu regnantis cor regis, egisset," which would only add one more to our author's false quantities. "Regum egisset" would avoid even that, while it would give some sense. Comp. Prov. xxi. 1.
 Maria cum conjuge feta. What follows seems to decide the meaning of "feta," as a child could hardly be included in a census before birth.
 Again I have had to attempt to amend the text of the Latin in order to extract any sense, and am far from sure that I have extracted the right one.
 "Fatentur," unless our author use it passively ="are confessed."
 "Possunt," i.e., probably "have the hardihood."
 Because Christ plainly, as they understood Him, "made Himself the Son of God;" and hence, if they confessed that He had said the truth, and yet that they hanged Him on a tree, they would be pronouncing their own condemnation.
 "Vinctam" for "victam" I read here.
 i.e., you and the Jews. See above on 185.
 Quod qui præsumpsit mergentes spargitis ambo. What the meaning is I know not, unless it be this: if any one hints to you that you are in an error which is sinking you into perdition, you both join in trying to sink him (if "mergentes" be active; or "while you are sinking," if neuter), and in sprinkling him with your doctrine (or besprinkling him with abuse).
 "Dum carnis membra requirit," i.e., seeking to regain for God all the limbs of the flesh as His instruments. Comp. Rom. vi. 13, 19.
 "Scriblita," a curious word.
 Fel miscetur aceto. The reading may have arisen--and it is not confined to our author--from confounding oxos with oinos. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 33 with Mark xv. 23.
 This is an error, if the "coat" be meant.
 Perhaps for "in illa" we should read "in illam"--"on it," for "in it."
 The Jews.
 For "ante diem quam cum pateretur" I have read "qua tum."
 Or, "deed"--"factum."
 Or, "is being poured"--"funditur."
 I read with Migne, "Patris sub imagine virtus," in preference to the conjecture which Oehler follows, "Christi sub imagine virtus." The reference seems clearly to be to Heb. i. 3.
 Ævo. Perhaps here ="eternity."
 i.e., "The All-Holder."
 Cf. Jacob's words in Gen. xxxii. 30; Manoah's in Judg. xiii. 22; etc.
 For "dimisit in umbris" I read here "demisit in imbris." If we retain the former reading, it will then mean, "dispersed during the shades of night," during which it was that the manna seems always to have fallen.
 "Sitientis" in Oehler must be a misprint for "sitientes."
 There ought to be a "se" in the Latin if this be the meaning.
 For "Mundator carnis seræ" ="the Cleanser of late flesh" (which would seem, if it mean anything, to mean that the flesh had to wait long for its cleansing), I have read "carnis nostræ."
 I have followed the disjointed style of the Latin as closely as I could here.
 Here we seem to see the idea of the "limbus patrum."
 "Subiens" ="going beneath," i.e., apparently coming beneath the walls of heaven.
 i.e., a figure of the future harvest.
 I have hazarded the conjecture "minutus" here for the edd.'s "munitus." It adds one more, it is true, to our author's false quantities, but that is a minor difficulty, while it improves (to my mind) the sense vastly.
(N.B.--It has been impossible to note the changes which I have had to make in the text of the Latin. In some cases they will suggest themselves to any scholar who may compare the translation with the original; and in others I must be content to await a more fitting opportunity, if such ever arise, for discussing them.)
(Appendix, p. 127.)
About these versifications, which are "poems" only as mules are horses, it is enough to say of them, with Dupin, "They are no more Tertullian's than they are Virgil's or Homer's. The poem called Genesis seems to be that which Gennadius attributes to Salvian, Bishop of Marseilles. That concerning the Judgment of God was, perhaps, composed by Verecundus, an African bishop. In the books Against Marcion there are some opinions different from those of Tertullian. There is likewise a poem To a Senator in Pamelius' edition, one of Sodom, and in the Bibliotheca Patrum one of Jonas and Nineve; the first of which is ancient, and the other two seem to be by the same author."
It is worth while to observe that this rhymester makes two bishops out of one.  Cletus and Anacletus he supposes different persons, which brings Clement into the fourth place in the see of Rome. Our author elsewhere makes St. Clement the immediate successor of the apostles. 
(Or is there ought, etc., l. 136, p. 137.)
In taking leave of Tertullian, it may be well to say a word of his famous saying, Certum est quia impossibile est. It occurs in the tract De Carne Christi,  and is one of those startling epigrammatic dicta of our author which is no more to be pressed in argument than any other bon-mot of a wit or a poet. It is evidently designed as a rhetorical climax, to enforce the same idea which we find in the hymn of Aquinas:--
"Et si sensus deficit,
Adfirmandum cor sincerum
Sola fides sufficit."
As Jeremy Taylor  argues, the condition is, that holy Scripture affirms it. If that be the case, then "all things are possible with God:" I believe; but I do not argue, for it is impossible with men. This is the plain sense of the great Carthaginian doctor's pithy rhetoric. But Dr. Bunsen sets it on all-fours, and treats it as if it were soberly designed to defy reason,--that reason to which Tertullian constantly makes his appeal against Marcion, and in many of his sayings  hardly less witty. Speaking of Hippolytus, that writer remarks,  "He might have said on some points, Credibile licet ineptum: he would never have exclaimed with Tertullian, Credibile quia ineptum.'" Why attempt to prove the absurdity of such a reflection? As well attempt to defend St. John's hyperbole  against a mind incapable of comprehending a figure of speech.
 See p. 156, supra.
 See De Præscrip., cap. xxxii. vol. iii. p. 258.
 Cap. v. vol. iii. p. 525.
 Christ in the Holy Sacrament, § xi. 6.
 De Anima, cap. xvii.
 Vol. i. p. 304.
 Chap. xxi. verse 25.
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