The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 1
Chapter I.--Preface--The Author's Object--The Utility of Written Compositions. 
[Wants the beginning] . . . . . . . . . . that you may read
them under your hand, and may be able to preserve them. Whether written
compositions are not to be left behind at all; or if they are, by whom?
And if the former, what need there is for written compositions? and if
the latter, is the composition of them to be assigned to earnest men,
or the opposite? It were certainly ridiculous for one to disapprove of
the writing of earnest men, and approve of those, who are not such,
engaging in the work of composition. Theopompus and Timaeus, who
composed fables and slanders, and Epicurus the leader of atheism, and
Hipponax and Archilochus, are to be allowed to write in their own
shameful manner. But he who proclaims the truth is to be prevented from
leaving behind him what is to benefit posterity. It is a good thing, I
reckon, to leave to posterity good children. This is the case with
children of our bodies. But words are the progeny of the soul. Hence we
call those who have instructed us, fathers. Wisdom is a communicative
and philanthropic thing. Accordingly, Solomon says, "My son, if thou
receive the saying of my commandment, and hide it with thee, thine ear
shall hear wisdom."  He points out that the word that is sown is
hidden in the soul of the learner, as in the earth, and this is
spiritual planting. Wherefore also he adds, "And thou shalt apply thine
heart to understanding, and apply it for the admonition of thy son."
For soul, methinks, joined with soul, and spirit with spirit, in the
sowing of the word, will make that which is sown grow and germinate.
And every one who is instructed, is in respect of subjection the son of
his instructor. "Son," says he, "forget not my laws." 
And if knowledge belong not to all (set an ass to the lyre, as the
proverb goes), yet written compositions are for the many. "Swine, for
instance, delight in dirt more than in clean water." "Wherefore," says
the Lord, "I speak to them in parables: because seeing, they see not;
and hearing, they hear not, and do not understand;"  not as if
the Lord caused the ignorance: for it were impious to think so. But He
prophetically exposed this ignorance, that existed in them, and
intimated that they would not understand the things spoken. And now the
Saviour shows Himself, out of His abundance, dispensing goods to His
servants according to the ability of the recipient, that they may
augment them by exercising activity, and then returning to reckon with
them; when, approving of those that had increased His money, those
faithful in little, and commanding them to have the charge over many
things, He bade them enter into the joy of the Lord. But to him who had
hid the money, entrusted to him to be given out at interest, and had
given it back as he had received it, without increase, He said, "Thou
wicked and slothful servant, thou oughtest to have given my money to
the bankers, and at my coming I should have received mine own."
Wherefore the useless servant "shall be cast into outer darkness."
 "Thou, therefore, be strong," says Paul, "in the grace that is
in Christ Jesus. And the things which thou hast heard of me among many
witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to
teach others also."  And again: "Study to show thyself approved
unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing
the word of truth."
If, then, both proclaim the Word--the one by writing, the other by
speech--are not both then to be approved, making, as they do, faith
active by love? It is by one's own fault that he does not choose what
is best; God is free of blame. As to the point in hand, it is the
business of some to lay out the word at interest, and of others to test
it, and either choose it or not. And the judgment is determined within
themselves. But there is that species of knowledge which is
characteristic of the herald, and that which is, as it were,
characteristic of a messenger, and it is serviceable in whatever way it
operates, both by the hand and tongue. "For he that soweth to the
Spirit, shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting. And let us not be
weary in well-doing."  On him who by Divine Providence meets in
with it, it confers the very highest advantages,--the beginning of
faith, readiness for adopting a right mode of life, the impulse towards
the truth, a movement of inquiry, a trace of knowledge; in a word, it
gives the means of salvation. And those who have been rightly reared in
the words of truth, and received provision for eternal life, wing their
way to heaven. Most admirably, therefore, the apostle says, "In
everything approving ourselves as the servants of God; as poor, and yet
making many rich; as having nothing, yet possessing all things. Our
mouth is opened to you."  "I charge thee," he says, writing to
Timothy, "before God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that thou
observe these things, without preferring one before another, doing
nothing by partiality." 
Both must therefore test themselves: the one, if he is qualified to
speak and leave behind him written records; the other, if he is in a
right state to hear and read: as also some in the dispensation of the
Eucharist, according to  custom enjoin that each one of the
people individually should take his part. One's own conscience is best
for choosing accurately or shunning. And its firm foundation is a right
life, with suitable instruction. But the imitation of those who have
already been proved, and who have led correct lives, is most excellent
for the understanding and practice of the commandments. "So that
whosoever shall eat the bread and drink the cup of the Lord unworthily,
shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man
examine himself, and so let him eat of the bread and drink of the cup."
 It therefore follows, that every one of those who undertake to
promote the good of their neighbours, ought to consider whether he has
betaken himself to teaching rashly and out of rivalry to any; if his
communication of the word is out of vainglory; if the the only reward
he reaps is the salvation of those who hear, and if he speaks not in
order to win favour: if so, he who speaks by writings escapes the
reproach of mercenary motives. "For neither at any time used we
flattering words, as ye know," says the apostle, "nor a cloak of
covetousness. God is witness. Nor of men sought we glory, neither of
you, nor yet of others, when we might have been burdensome as the
apostles of Christ. But we were gentle among you, even as a nurse
cherisheth her children." 
In the same way, therefore, those who take part in the divine words,
ought to guard against betaking themselves to this, as they would to
the building of cities, to examine them out of curiosity; that they do
not come to the task for the sake of receiving worldly things, having
ascertained that they who are consecrated to Christ are given to
communicate the necessaries of life. But let such be dismissed as
hypocrites. But if any one wishes not to seem, but to be righteous, to
him it belongs to know the things which are best. If, then, "the
harvest is plenteous, but the labourers few," it is incumbent on us "to
pray" that there may be as great abundance of labourers as possible.
But the husbandry is twofold,--the one unwritten, and the other
written. And in whatever way the Lord's labourer sow the good wheat,
and grow and reap the ears, he shall appear a truly divine husbandman.
"Labour," says the Lord, "not for the meat which perisheth, but for
that which endureth to everlasting life."  And nutriment is
received both by bread and by words. And truly "blessed are the
peace-makers,"  who instructing those who are at war in their
life and errors here, lead them back to the peace which is in the Word,
and nourish for the life which is according to God, by the distribution
of the bread, those "that hunger after righteousness." For each soul
has its own proper nutriment; some growing by knowledge and science,
and others feeding on the Hellenic philosophy, the whole of which, like
nuts, is not eatable. "And he that planteth and he that watereth,"
"being ministers" of Him "that gives the increase, are one" in the
ministry. "But every one shall receive his own reward, according to his
own work. For we are God's husbandmen, God's husbandry. Ye are God's
building,"  according to the apostle. Wherefore the hearers are
not permitted to apply the test of comparison. Nor is the word, given
for investigation, to be committed to those who have been reared in the
arts of all kinds of words, and in the power of inflated attempts at
proof; whose minds are already pre-occupied, and have not been
previously emptied. But whoever chooses to banquet on faith, is
stedfast for the reception of the divine words, having acquired already
faith as a power of judging, according to reason. Hence ensues to him
persuasion in abundance. And this was the meaning of that saying of
prophecy, "If ye believe not, neither shall ye understand."  "As,
then, we have opportunity, let us do good to all, especially to the
household of faith."  And let each of these, according to the
blessed David, sing, giving thanks. "Thou shalt sprinkle me with
hyssop, and I shall be cleansed. Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be
whiter than the snow. Thou shalt make me to hear gladness and joy, and
the bones which have been humbled shall rejoice. Turn Thy face from my
sins. Blot out mine iniquities. Create in me a clean heart, O God, and
renew a right spirit in my inward parts. Cast me not away from Thy
face, and take not Thy Holy Spirit from me. Restore to me the joy of
Thy salvation, and establish me with Thy princely spirit." 
He who addresses those who are present before him, both tests them by
time, and judges by his judgment, and from the others distinguishes him
who can hear; watching the words, the manners, the habits, the life,
the motions, the attitudes, the look, the voice; the road, the rock,
the beaten path, the fruitful land, the wooded region, the fertile and
fair and cultivated spot, that is able to multiply the seed. But he
that speaks through books, consecrates himself before God, crying in
writing thus: Not for gain, not for vainglory, not to be vanquished by
partiality, nor enslaved by fear nor elated by pleasure; but only to
reap the salvation of those who read, which he does, not at present
participate in, but awaiting in expectation the recompense which will
certainly be rendered by Him, who has promised to bestow on the
labourers the reward that is meet. But he who is enrolled in the number
of men  ought not to desire recompense. For he that vaunts his
good services, receives glory as his reward. And he who does any duty
for the sake of recompense, is he not held fast in the custom of the
world, either as one who has done well, hastening to receive a reward,
or as an evil-doer avoiding retribution? We must, as far as we can,
imitate the Lord. And he will do so, who complies with the will of God,
receiving freely, giving freely, and receiving as a worthy reward the
citizenship itself. "The hire of an harlot shall not come into the
sanctuary," it is said: accordingly it was forbidden to bring to the
altar the price of a dog. And in whomsoever the eye of the soul has
been blinded by ill-nurture and teaching, let him advance to the true
light, to the truth, which shows by writing the things that are
unwritten. "Ye that thirst, go to the waters,"  says Esaias. And
"drink water from thine own vessels,"  Solomon exhorts.
Accordingly in "The Laws," the philosopher who learned from the
Hebrews, Plato, commands husbandmen not to irrigate or take water from
others, until they have first dug down in their own ground to what is
called the virgin soil, and found it dry. For it is right to supply
want, but it is not well to support laziness. For Pythagoras said that,
"although it be agreeable to reason to take a share of a burden, it is
not a duty to take it away."
Now the Scripture kindles the living spark of the soul, and directs the
eye suitably for contemplation; perchance inserting something, as the
husbandman when he ingrafts, but, according to the opinion of the
divine apostle, exciting what is in the soul. "For there are certainly
among us many weak and sickly, and many sleep. But if we judge
ourselves, we shall not be judged."  Now this work of mine in
writing is not artfully constructed for display; but my memoranda are
stored up against old age, as a remedy against forgetfulness, truly an
image and outline of those vigorous and animated discourses which I was
privileged to hear, and of blessed and truly remarkable men.
Of these the one, in Greece, an Ionic;  the other in Magna
Graecia: the first of these from Coele-Syria, the second from Egypt,
and others in the East. The one was born in the land of Assyria, and
the other a Hebrew in Palestine.
When I came upon the last  (he was the first in power), having
tracked him out concealed in Egypt, I found rest. He, the true, the
Sicilian bee, gathering the spoil of the flowers of the prophetic and
apostolic meadow, engendered in the souls of his hearers a deathless
element of knowledge.
Well, they preserving the tradition of the blessed doctrine derived
directly from the holy apostles, Peter, James, John, and Paul, the sons
receiving it from the father (but few were like the fathers), came by
God's will to us also to deposit those ancestral and apostolic seeds.
And well I know that they will exult; I do not mean delighted with this
tribute, but solely on account of the preservation of the truth,
according as they delivered it. For such a sketch as this, will, I
think, be agreeable to a soul desirous of preserving from escape the
blessed tradition.  "In a man who loves wisdom the father will be
glad."  Wells, when pumped out, yield purer water; and that of
which no one partakes, turns to putrefaction. Use keeps steel brighter,
but disuse produces rust in it. For, in a word, exercise produces a
healthy condition both in souls and bodies. "No one lighteth a candle,
and putteth it under a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may give
light to those who are regarded worthy of the feast."  For what
is the use of wisdom, if it makes not him who can hear it wise? For
still the Saviour saves, "and always works, as He sees the Father."
 For by teaching, one learns more; and in speaking, one is often
a hearer along with his audience. For the teacher of him who speaks and
of him who hears is one--who waters both the mind and the word. Thus
the Lord did not hinder from doing good while keeping the Sabbath;
 but allowed us to communicate of those divine mysteries, and of
that holy light, to those who are able to receive them. He did not
certainly disclose to the many what did not belong to the many; but to
the few to whom He knew that they belonged, who were capable of
receiving and being moulded according to them. But secret things are
entrusted to speech, not to writing, as is the case with God. 
And if one say that it is written, "There is nothing secret which shall
not be revealed, nor hidden which shall not be disclosed,"  let
him also hear from us, that to him who hears secretly, even what is
secret shall be manifested. This is what was predicted by this oracle.
And to him who is able secretly to observe what is delivered to him,
that which is veiled shall be disclosed as truth; and what is hidden to
the many, shall appear manifest to the few. For why do not all know the
truth? why is not righteousness loved, if righteousness belongs to all?
But the mysteries are delivered mystically, that what is spoken may be
in the mouth of the speaker; rather not in his voice, but in his
understanding. "God gave to the Church, some apostles, and some
prophets, and some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers, for the
perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the
edifying of the body of Christ." 
The writing of these memoranda of mine, I well know, is weak when
compared with that spirit, full of grace, which I was privileged to
hear.  But it will be an image to recall the archetype to him who
was struck with the thyrsus. For "speak," it is said, "to a wise man,
and he will grow wiser; and to him that hath, and there shall be added
to him." And we profess not to explain secret things sufficiently--far
from it--but only to recall them to memory, whether we have forgot
aught, or whether for the purpose of not forgetting. Many things, I
well know, have escaped us, through length of time, that have dropped
away unwritten. Whence, to aid the weakness of my memory, and provide
for myself a salutary help to my recollection in a systematic
arrangement of chapters, I necessarily make use of this form. There are
then some things of which we have no recollection; for the power that
was in the blessed men was great.  There are also some things
which remained unnoted long, which have now escaped; and others which
are effaced, having faded away in the mind itself, since such a task is
not easy to those not experienced; these I revive in my commentaries.
Some things I purposely omit, in the exercise of a wise selection,
afraid to write what I guarded against speaking: not grudging--for that
were wrong--but fearing for my readers, lest they should stumble by
taking them in a wrong sense; and, as the proverb says, we should be
found "reaching a sword to a child." For it is impossible that what has
been written should not escape, although remaining unpublished by me.
But being always revolved, using the one only voice, that of writing,
they answer nothing to him that makes inquiries beyond what is written;
for they require of necessity the aid of some one, either of him who
wrote, or of some one else who has walked in his footsteps. Some things
my treatise will hint; on some it will linger; some it will merely
mention. It will try to speak imperceptibly, to exhibit secretly, and
to demonstrate silently. The dogmas taught by remarkable sects will be
adduced; and to these will be opposed all that ought to be premised in
accordance with the profoundest contemplation of the knowledge, which,
as we proceed to the renowned and venerable canon of tradition, from
the creation of the world,  will advance to our view; setting
before us what according to natural contemplation necessarily has to be
treated of beforehand, and clearing off what stands in the way of this
arrangement. So that we may have our ears ready for the reception of
the tradition of true knowledge; the soil being previously cleared of
the thorns and of every weed by the husbandman, in order to the
planting of the vine. For there is a contest, and the prelude to the
contest; and there are some mysteries before other mysteries.
Our book will not shrink from making use of what is best in philosophy
and other preparatory instruction. "For not only for the Hebrews and
those that are under the law," according to the apostle, "is it right
to become a Jew, but also a Greek for the sake of the Greeks, that we
may gain all."  Also in the Epistle to the Colossians he writes,
"Admonishing every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we
may present every man perfect in Christ."  The nicety of
speculation, too, suits the sketch presented in my commentaries. In
this respect the resources of learning are like a relish mixed with the
food of an athlete, who is not indulging in luxury, but entertains a
noble desire for distinction.
By music we harmoniously relax the excessive tension of gravity. And as
those who wish to address the people, do so often by the herald, that
what is said may be better heard; so also in this case. For we have the
word, that was spoken to many, before the common tradition. Wherefore
we must set forth the opinions and utterances which cried individually
to them, by which those who hear shall more readily turn.
And, in truth, to speak briefly: Among many small pearls there is the
one; and in a great take of fish there is the beauty-fish; and by time
and toil truth will gleam forth, if a good helper is at hand. For most
benefits are supplied, from God, through men. All of us who make use of
our eyes see what is presented before them. But some look at objects
for one reason, others for another. For instance, the cook and the
shepherd do not survey the sheep similarly: for the one examines it if
it be fat; the other watches to see if it be of good breed. Let a man
milk the sheep's milk if he need sustenance: let him shear the wool if
he need clothing. And in this way let me produce the fruit of the Greek
For I do not imagine that any composition can be so fortunate as that
no one will speak against it. But that is to be regarded as in
accordance with reason, which nobody speaks against, with reason. And
that course of action and choice is to be approved, not which is
faultless, but which no one rationally finds fault with. For it does
not follow, that if a man accomplishes anything not purposely, he does
it through force of circumstances. But he will do it, managing it by
wisdom divinely given, and in accommodation to circumstances. For it is
not he who has virtue that needs the way to virtue, any more than he,
that is strong, needs recovery. For, like farmers who irrigate the land
beforehand, so we also water with the liquid stream of Greek learning
what in it is earthy; so that it may receive the spiritual seed cast
into it, and may be capable of easily nourishing it. The Stromata will
contain the truth mixed up in the dogmas of philosophy, or rather
covered over and hidden, as the edible part of the nut in the shell.
For, in my opinion, it is fitting that the seeds of truth be kept for
the husbandmen of faith, and no others. I am not oblivious of what is
babbled by some, who in their ignorance are frightened at every noise,
and say that we ought to occupy ourselves with what is most necessary,
and which contains the faith; and that we should pass over what is
beyond and superfluous, which wears out and detains us to no purpose,
in things which conduce nothing to the great end. Others think that
philosophy was introduced into life by an evil influence, for the ruin
of men, by an evil inventor. But I shall show, throughout the whole of
these Stromata, that evil has an evil nature, and can never turn out
the producer of aught that is good; indicating that philosophy is in a
sense a work of Divine Providence. 
 [It is impossible to illustrate the Stromata by needed notes, on the plan of this publication. It would double the size of the work, and require time and such scholorship as belongs to experts. Important matters are briefly discussed at the end of each book. Elucidation I.]
 Prov. ii. 1, 2.
 Prov. iii. 1.
 Matt. xiii. 13.
 Matt. xviii. 32; Luke xix. 22; Matt. xxv. 30.
 2 Tim. ii. 1, 2.
 Gal. vi. 8, 9.
 2 Cor. vi. 4, 10, 11.
 1 Tim. v. 21.
 [To be noted as apparently allowed, yet exceptionally so.]
 1 Cor. xi. 27, 28.
 1 Thess. ii. 5, 6, 7.
 Matt. ix. 37, 38; Luke x. 2.
 John vi. 27.
 Matt. v. 9.
 1 Cor. iii. 8, 9.
 Isa. vii. 9.
 Gal. vi. 10.
 Ps. li. 7-12.
 i.e., perfect men.
 Isa. lv. 1.
 Prov. v. 15.
 1 Cor. xi. 31, 32. "You" is the reading of New Testament.
 The first probably Tatian, the second Theodotus.
 Most likely Pantaenus, master of the catechetical school in Alexandria, and the teacher of Clement. [Elucidation II.]
 [See Elucidation III., infra.]
 Prov. xxix. 3.
 Matt. v. 15; Mark. iv. 21.
 John. v. 17, 19.
 [This reference to the Jewish Sabbath to be noted in connection with what Clement says elsewhere.]
 [See Elucidation IV., infra.]
 Luke viii. 17, xii. 2.
 Eph. iv. 11, 12.
 [An affectionate reference to Pantaenus and his other masters.]
 [An affectionate reference to Pantaenus and his other masters.]
 [See Elucidation V., infra.]
 1 Cor. ix. 20, 21.
 Col. i. 28.
 [Every reference of our author to his use of Greek learning and (eclectic) philosophy, is important in questions about his orthodoxy.]
 [Every reference of our author to his use of Greek learning and (eclectic) philosophy, is important in questions about his orthodoxy.]
Chapter II.--Objection to the Number of Extracts from Philosophical Writings in These Books Anticipated and Answered.
In reference to these commentaries, which contain as the exigencies of
the case demand, the Hellenic opinions, I say thus much to those who
are fond of finding fault. First, even if philosophy were useless, if
the demonstration of its uselessness does good, it is yet useful. Then
those cannot condemn the Greeks, who have only a mere hearsay knowledge
of their opinions, and have not entered into a minute investigation in
each department, in order to acquaintance with them. For the
refutation, which is based on experience, is entirely trustworthy. For
the knowledge of what is condemned is found the most complete
demonstration. Many things, then, though not contributing to the final
result, equip the artist. And otherwise erudition commends him, who
sets forth the most essential doctrines so as to produce persuasion in
his hearers, engendering admiration in those who are taught, and leads
them to the truth. And such persuasion is convincing, by which those
that love learning admit the truth; so that philosophy does not ruin
life by being the originator of false practices and base deeds,
although some have calumniated it, though it be the clear image of
truth, a divine gift to the Greeks;  nor does it drag us away
from the faith, as if we were bewitched by some delusive art, but
rather, so to speak, by the use of an ampler circuit, obtains a common
exercise demonstrative of the faith. Further, the juxtaposition of
doctrines, by comparison, saves the truth, from which follows
Philosophy came into existence, not on its own account, but for the
advantages reaped by us from knowledge, we receiving a firm persuasion
of true perception, through the knowledge of things comprehended by the
mind. For I do not mention that the Stromata, forming a body of varied
erudition, wish artfully to conceal the seeds of knowledge. As, then,
he who is fond of hunting captures the game after seeking, tracking,
scenting, hunting it down with dogs; so truth, when sought and got with
toil, appears a delicious  thing. Why, then, you will ask, did
you think it fit that such an arrangement should be adopted in your
memoranda? Because there is great danger in divulging the secret of the
true philosophy to those, whose delight it is unsparingly to speak
against everything, not justly; and who shout forth all kinds of names
and words indecorously, deceiving themselves and beguiling those who
adhere to them. "For the Hebrews seek signs," as the apostle says, "and
the Greeks seek after wisdom." 
 [Noteworthy with his caveat about comparison. He deals with Greek philosophers as surgeons do with comparative anatomy.]
 Adopting the emendation gluku ti instead of glukuteti.
 1 Cor. i. 22.
Chapter III.--Against the Sophists.
There is a great crowd of this description: some of them, enslaved to
pleasures and willing to disbelieve, laugh at the truth which is worthy
of all reverence, making sport of its barbarousness. Some others,
exalting themselves, endeavour to discover calumnious objections to our
words, furnishing captious questions, hunters out of paltry sayings,
practicers of miserable artifices, wranglers, dealers in knotty points,
as that Abderite says:--
"For mortals' tongues are glib, and on them are many speeches;
And a wide range for words of all sorts in this place and that."
"Of whatever sort the word you have spoken, of the same sort you must
Inflated with this art of theirs, the wretched Sophists, babbling away
in their own jargon; toiling their whole life about the division of
names and the nature of the composition and conjunction of sentences,
show themselves greater chatterers than turtle-doves; scratching and
tickling, not in a manly way, in my opinion, the ears of those who wish
to be tickled.
"A river of silly words--not a dropping;"
just as in old shoes, when all the rest is worn and is falling to
pieces, and the tongue alone remains. The Athenian Solon most
excellently enlarges, and writes:--
"Look to the tongue, and to the words of the glozing man,
But you look on no work that has been done;
But each one of you walks in the steps of a fox,
And in all of you is an empty mind."
This, I think, is signified by the utterance of the Saviour, "The foxes
have holes, but the Son of man hath not where to lay His head." 
For on the believer alone, who is separated entirely from the rest, who
by the Scripture are called wild beasts, rests the head of the
universe, the kind and gentle Word, "who taketh the wise in their own
craftiness. For the Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they
are vain;"  the Scripture calling those the wise (sophous) who
are skilled in words and arts, sophists (sophistas). Whence the Greeks
also applied the denominative appellation of wise and sophists (sophoi,
sophistai) to those who were versed in anything Cratinus accordingly,
having in the Archilochii enumerated the poets, said:--
"Such a hive of sophists have ye examined."
And similarly Iophon, the comic poet, in Flute-playing Satyrs, says:--
"For there entered
A band of sophists, all equipped."
Of these and the like, who devote their attention to empty words, the
divine Scripture most excellently says, "I will destroy the wisdom of
the wise, and bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent."
 Matt. viii. 20; Luke ix. 58.
 Job v. 13; 1 Cor. iii. 19, 20; Ps. xciv. 11.
 Isa. xxix. 14; 1 Cor. i. 19.
Chapter IV.--Human Arts as Well as Divine Knowledge Proceed from God.
Homer calls an artificer wise; and of Margites, if that is his work, he
"Him, then, the Gods made neither a delver nor a ploughman,
Nor in any other respect wise; but he missed every art."
Hesiod further said the musician Linus was "skilled in all manner of
wisdom;" and does not hesitate to call a mariner wise, seeing he
"Having no wisdom in navigation."
And Daniel the prophet says, "The mystery which the king asks, it is
not in the power of the wise, the Magi, the diviners, the Gazarenes, to
tell the king; but it is God in heaven who revealeth it." 
Here he terms the Babylonians wise. And that Scripture calls every
secular science or art by the one name wisdom (there are other arts and
sciences invented over and above by human reason), and that artistic
and skilful invention is from God, will be clear if we adduce the
following statement: "And the Lord spake to Moses, See, I have called
Bezaleel, the son of Uri, the son of Or, of the tribe of Judah; and I
have filled him with the divine spirit of wisdom, and understanding,
and knowledge, to devise and to execute in all manner of work, to work
gold, and silver, and brass, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and in
working stone work, and in the art of working wood," and even to "all
works."  And then He adds the general reason, "And to every
understanding heart I have given understanding;"  that is, to
every one capable of acquiring it by pains and exercise. And again, it
is written expressly in the name of the Lord: "And speak thou to all
that are wise in mind, whom I have filled with the spirit of
Those who are wise in mind have a certain attribute of nature peculiar
to themselves; and they who have shown themselves capable, receive from
the Supreme Wisdom a spirit of perception in double measure. For those
who practice the common arts, are in what pertains to the senses highly
gifted: in hearing, he who is commonly called a musician; in touch, he
who moulds clay; in voice the singer, in smell the perfumer, in sight
the engraver of devices on seals. Those also that are occupied in
instruction, train the sensibility according to which the poets are
susceptible to the influence of measure; the sophists apprehend
expression; the dialecticians, syllogisms; and the philosophers are
capable of the contemplation of which themselves are the objects. For
sensibility finds and invents; since it persuasively exhorts to
application. And practice will increase the application which has
knowledge for its end. With reason, therefore, the apostle has called
the wisdom of God "manifold," and which has manifested its power "in
many departments and in many modes"  --by art, by knowledge, by
faith, by prophecy--for our benefit. "For all wisdom is from the Lord,
and is with Him for ever," as says the wisdom of Jesus. 
"For if thou call on wisdom and knowledge with a loud voice, and seek
it as treasures of silver, and eagerly track it out, thou shalt
understand godliness and find divine knowledge."  The prophet
says this in contradiction to the knowledge according to philosophy,
which teaches us to investigate in a magnanimous and noble manner, for
our progress in piety. He opposes, therefore, to it the knowledge which
is occupied with piety, when referring to knowledge, when he speaks as
follows: "For God gives wisdom out of His own mouth, and knowledge
along with understanding, and treasures up help for the righteous." For
to those who have been justified  by philosophy, the knowledge
which leads to piety is laid up as a help.
 Dan. ii. 27, 28.
 Ex. xxxi. 2-5.
 Ex. xxxi. 6.
 Ex. xxviii. 3.
 Eph. iii. 10; Heb. i. 1.
 Ecclus. i. 1.
 Prov. ii. 3-5.
 [A passage much reflected upon, in questions of Clement's Catholic orthodoxy. See Elucidation VI., infra.]
Chapter V.--Philosophy the Handmaid of Theology.
Accordingly, before the advent of the Lord, philosophy was necessary to
the Greeks for righteousness.  And now it becomes conducive to
piety; being a kind of preparatory training to those who attain to
faith through demonstration. "For thy foot," it is said, "will not
stumble, if thou refer what is good, whether belonging to the Greeks or
to us, to Providence."  For God is the cause of all good things;
but of some primarily, as of the Old and the New Testament; and of
others by consequence, as philosophy. Perchance, too, philosophy was
given to the Greeks directly and primarily, till the Lord should call
the Greeks. For this was a schoolmaster to bring "the Hellenic mind,"
as the law, the Hebrews, "to Christ."  Philosophy, therefore, was
a preparation, paving the way for him who is perfected in Christ.
"Now," says Solomon, "defend wisdom, and it will exalt thee, and it
will shield thee with a crown of pleasure."  For when thou hast
strengthened wisdom with a cope by philosophy, and with right
expenditure, thou wilt preserve it unassailable by sophists. The way of
truth is therefore one. But into it, as into a perennial river, streams
flow from all sides. It has been therefore said by inspiration: "Hear,
my son, and receive my words; that thine may be the many ways of life.
For I teach thee the ways of wisdom; that the fountains fail thee not,"
 which gush forth from the earth itself. Not only did He
enumerate several ways of salvation for any one righteous man, but He
added many other ways of many righteous, speaking thus: "The paths of
the righteous shine like the light."  The commandments and the
modes of preparatory training are to be regarded as the ways and
appliances of life.
"Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how often would I have gathered thy children, as
a hen her chickens!"  And Jerusalem is, when interpreted, "a
vision of peace." He therefore shows prophetically, that those who
peacefully contemplate sacred things are in manifold ways trained to
their calling. What then? He "would," and could not. How often, and
where? Twice; by the prophets, and by the advent. The expression, then,
"How often," shows wisdom to be manifold; every mode of quantity and
quality, it by all means saves some, both in time and in eternity. "For
the Spirit of the Lord fills the earth."  And if any should
violently say that the reference is to the Hellenic culture, when it is
said, "Give not heed to an evil woman; for honey drops from the lips of
a harlot," let him hear what follows: "who lubricates thy throat for
the time." But philosophy does not flatter. Who, then, does He allude
to as having committed fornication? He adds expressly, "For the feet of
folly lead those who use her, after death, to Hades. But her steps are
not supported." Therefore remove thy way far from silly pleasure.
"Stand not at the doors of her house, that thou yield not thy life to
others." And He testifies, "Then shall thou repent in old age, when the
flesh of thy body is consumed." For this is the end of foolish
pleasure. Such, indeed, is the case. And when He says, "Be not much
with a strange woman,"  He admonishes us to use indeed, but not
to linger and spend time with, secular culture. For what was bestowed
on each generation advantageously, and at seasonable times, is a
preliminary training for the word of the Lord. "For already some men,
ensnared by the charms of handmaidens, have despised their consort
philosophy, and have grown old, some of them in music, some in
geometry, others in grammar, the most in rhetoric."  "But as the
encyclical branches of study contribute to philosophy, which is their
mistress; so also philosophy itself co-operates for the acquisition of
wisdom. For philosophy is the study of wisdom, and wisdom is the
knowledge of things divine and human; and their causes." Wisdom is
therefore queen of philosophy, as philosophy is of preparatory culture.
For if philosophy "professes control of the tongue, and the belly, and
the parts below the belly, it is to be chosen on its own account. But
it appears more worthy of respect and pre-eminence, if cultivated for
the honour and knowledge of God."  And Scripture will afford a
testimony to what has been said in what follows. Sarah was at one time
barren, being Abraham's wife. Sarah having no child, assigned her maid,
by name Hagar, the Egyptian, to Abraham, in order to get children.
Wisdom, therefore, who dwells with the man of faith (and Abraham was
reckoned faithful and righteous), was still barren and without child in
that generation, not having brought forth to Abraham aught allied to
virtue. And she, as was proper, thought that he, being now in the time
of progress, should have intercourse with secular culture first (by
Egyptian the world is designated figuratively); and afterwards should
approach to her according to divine providence, and beget Isaac."
And Philo interprets Hagar to mean "sojourning."  For it is said
in connection with this, "Be not much with a strange woman." 
Sarah he interprets to mean "my princedom." He, then, who has received
previous training is at liberty to approach to wisdom, which is
supreme, from which grows up the race of Israel. These things show that
that wisdom can be acquired through instruction, to which Abraham
attained, passing from the contemplation of heavenly things to the
faith and righteousness which are according to God. And Isaac is shown
to mean "self-taught;" wherefore also he is discovered to be a type of
Christ. He was the husband of one wife Rebecca, which they translate
"Patience." And Jacob is said to have consorted with several, his name
being interpreted "Exerciser." And exercises are engaged in by means of
many and various dogmas. Whence, also, he who is really "endowed with
the power of seeing" is called Israel,  having much experience,
and being fit for exercise.
Something else may also have been shown by the three patriarchs,
namely, that the sure seal of knowledge is composed of nature, of
education, and exercise.
You may have also another image of what has been said, in Thamar
sitting by the way, and presenting the appearance of a harlot, on whom
the studious Judas (whose name is interpreted "powerful"), who left
nothing unexamined and uninvestigated, looked; and turned aside to her,
preserving his profession towards God. Wherefore also, when Sarah was
jealous at Hagar being preferred to her, Abraham, as choosing only what
was profitable in secular philosophy, said, "Behold, thy maid is in
thine hands: deal with her as it pleases thee;"  manifestly
meaning, "I embrace secular culture as youthful, and a handmaid; but
thy knowledge I honour and reverence as true wife." And Sarah afflicted
her; which is equivalent to corrected and admonished her. It has
therefore been well said, "My son, despise not thou the correction of
God; nor faint when thou art rebuked of Him. For whom the Lord loveth
He chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom He receiveth."  And
the foresaid Scriptures, when examined in other places, will be seen to
exhibit other mysteries. We merely therefore assert here, that
philosophy is characterized by investigation into truth and the nature
of things (this is the truth of which the Lord Himself said, "I am the
truth"  ); and that, again, the preparatory training for rest in
Christ exercises the mind, rouses the intelligence, and begets an
inquiring shrewdness, by means of the true philosophy, which the
initiated possess, having found it, or rather received it, from the
 [In connection with note 3, p. 303, supra, see Elucidation VII.]
 Prov. iii. 23.
 Gal. iii. 24.
 [In connection with note 3, p. 303, supra, see Elucidation VII.]
 Prov. iv. 8, 9.
 Prov. iv. 10, 11, 21.
 Prov. iv. 18.
 Matt. xxiii. 37; Luke xiii. 34.
 [A favourite expression of the Fathers, expressing hope for the heathen. See Elucidations VIII., infra.]
 Prov. v. 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 20.
 Philo Judaeus, On seeking Instruction, 435. See Bohn's translation, ii. 173.
 Quoted from Philo with some alterations. See Bohn's translation, vol. ii. p. 173.
 See Philo, Meeting to seek Instruction, Bohn's translation, vol. ii. 160.
 Bohn's trans., vol. ii. 161.
 Prov. v. 20. Philo, On meeting to seek Knowledge, near beginning.
 Philo, in the book above cited, interprets "Israel," "seeing God." From this book all the instances and etymologies occuring here are taken.
 Gen. xvi. 6.
 Prov. iii. 11, 12; Heb. xii. 5, 6.
 John xiv. 6.
Chapter VI.--The Benefit of Culture.
The readiness acquired by previous training conduces much to the
perception of such things as are requisite; but those things which can
be perceived only by mind are the special exercise for the mind. And
their nature is triple according as we consider their quantity, their
magnitude, and what can be predicated of them. For the discourse which
consists of demonstrations, implants in the spirit of him who follows
it, clear faith; so that he cannot conceive of that which is
demonstrated being different; and so it does not allow us to succumb to
those who assail us by fraud. In such studies, therefore, the soul is
purged from sensible things, and is excited, so as to be able to see
truth distinctly. For nutriment, and the training which is maintained
gentle, make noble natures; and noble natures, when they have received
such training, become still better than before both in other respects,
but especially in productiveness, as is the case with the other
creatures. Wherefore it is said, "Go to the ant, thou sluggard, and
become wiser than it, which provideth much and, varied food in the
harvest against the inclemency of winter."  Or go to the bee, and
learn how laborious she is; for she, feeding on the whole meadow,
produces one honey-comb. And if "thou prayest in the closet," as the
Lord taught, "to worship in spirit,"  thy management will no
longer be solely occupied about the house, but also about the soul,
what must be bestowed on it, and how, and how much; and what must be
laid aside and treasured up in it; and when it ought to be produced,
and to whom. For it is not by nature, but by learning, that people
become noble and good, as people also become physicians and pilots. We
all in common, for example, see the vine and the horse. But the
husbandman will know if the vine be good or bad at fruit-bearing; and
the horseman will easily distinguish between the spiritless and the
swift animal. But that some are naturally predisposed to virtue above
others, certain pursuits of those, who are so naturally predisposed
above others, show. But that perfection in virtue is not the exclusive
property of those, whose natures are better, is proved, since also
those who by nature are ill-disposed towards virtue, in obtaining
suitable training, for the most part attain to excellence; and, on the
other hand, those whose natural dispositions are apt, become evil
Again, God has created us naturally social and just; whence justice
must not be said to take its rise from implantation alone. But the good
imparted by creation is to be conceived of as excited by the
commandment; the soul being trained to be willing to select what is
But as we say that a man can be a believer without learning,  so
also we assert that it is impossible for a man without learning to
comprehend the things which are declared in the faith. But to adopt
what is well said, and not to adopt the reverse, is caused not simply
by faith, but by faith combined with knowledge. But if ignorance is
want of training and of instruction, then teaching produces knowledge
of divine and human things. But just as it is possible to live rightly
in penury of this world's good things, so also in abundance. And we
avow, that at once with more ease and more speed will one attain to
virtue through previous training. But it is not such as to be
unattainable without it; but it is attainable only when they have
learned, and have had their senses exercised.  "For hatred," says
Solomon, "raises strife, but instruction guardeth the ways of life;"
 in such a way that we are not deceived nor deluded by those who
are practiced in base arts for the injury of those who hear. "But
instruction wanders reproachless,"  it is said. We must be
conversant with the art of reasoning, for the purpose of confuting the
deceitful opinions of the sophists. Well and felicitously, therefore,
does Anaxarchus write in his book respecting "kingly rule:" "Erudition
benefits greatly and hurts greatly him who possesses it; it helps him
who is worthy, and injures him who utters readily every word, and
before the whole people. It is necessary to know the measure of time.
For this is the end of wisdom. And those who sing at the doors, even if
they sing skilfully, are not reckoned wise, but have the reputation of
folly." And Hesiod:--
"Of the Muses, who make a man loquacious, divine, vocal."
For him who is fluent in words he calls loquacious; and him who is
clever, vocal; and "divine," him who is skilled, a philosopher, and
acquainted with the truth.
 Prov. vi. 6, 8. [The bee is not instanced in Scripture.]
 Matt. vi. 6; John iv. 23.
 [Illustrative of the esoteric principle of Clement. See Elucidation IX., infra.]
 Heb. v. 14.
 Prov. x. 12, 17.
 Prov. x. 19.
Chapter VII.--The Eclectic Philosophy Paves the Way for Divine Virtue.
The Greek preparatory culture, therefore, with philosophy itself, is
shown to have come down from God to men, not with a definite direction
but in the way in which showers fall down on the good land, and on the
dunghill, and on the houses. And similarly both the grass and the wheat
sprout; and the figs and any other reckless trees grow on sepulchres.
And things that grow, appear as a type of truths. For they enjoy the
same influence of the rain. But they have not the same grace as those
which spring up in rich soil, inasmuch as they are withered or plucked
up. And here we are aided by the parable of the sower, which the Lord
interpreted. For the husbandman of the soil which is among men is one;
He who from the beginning, from the foundation of the world, sowed
nutritious seeds; He who in each age rained down the Lord, the Word.
But the times and places which received [such gifts], created the
differences which exist. Further, the husbandman sows not only wheat
(of which there are many varieties), but also other seeds--barley, and
beans, and peas, and vetches, and vegetable and flower seeds. And to
the same husbandry belongs both planting and the operations necessary
in the nurseries, and gardens, and orchards, and the planning and
rearing of all sorts of trees.
In like manner, not only the care of sheep, but the care of herds, and
breeding of horses, and dogs, and bee-craft, all arts, and to speak
comprehensively, the care of flocks and the rearing of animals, differ
from each other more or less, but are all useful for life. And
philosophy--I do not mean the Stoic, or the Platonic, or the Epicurean,
or the Aristotelian, but whatever has been well said by each of those
sects, which teach righteousness along with a science pervaded by
piety,--this eclectic whole I call philosophy.  But such
conclusions of human reasonings, as men have cut away and falsified, I
would never call divine.
And now we must look also at this, that if ever those who know not how
to do well, live well;  for they have lighted on well-doing.
Some, too, have aimed well at the word of truth through understanding.
"But Abraham was not justified by works, but by faith."  It is
therefore of no advantage to them after the end of life, even if they
do good works now, if they have not faith. Wherefore also the
Scriptures  were translated into the language of the Greeks, in
order that they might never be able to allege the excuse of ignorance,
inasmuch as they are able to hear also what we have in our hands, if
they only wish. One speaks in one way of the truth, in another way the
truth interprets itself. The guessing at truth is one thing, and truth
itself is another. Resemblance is one thing, the thing itself is
another. And the one results from learning and practice, the other from
power and faith. For the teaching of piety is a gift, but faith is
grace. "For by doing the will of God we know the will of God." 
"Open, then," says the Scripture, "the gates of righteousness; and I
will enter in, and confess to the Lord."  But the paths to
righteousness (since God saves in many ways, for He is good) are many
and various, and lead to the Lord's way and gate. And if you ask the
royal and true entrance, you will hear, "This is the gate of the Lord,
the righteous shall enter in by it."  While there are many gates
open, that in righteousness is in Christ, by which all the blessed
enter, and direct their steps in the sanctity of knowledge. Now
Clemens, in his Epistle to the Corinthians, while expounding the
differences of those who are approved according to the Church, says
expressly, "One may be a believer; one may be powerful in uttering
knowledge; one may be wise in discriminating between words; one may be
terrible in deeds." 
 [Most important as defining Clement's system, and his use of this word, "philosophy."]
 Something seems wanting to complete the sense.
 Rom. iv.
 [Stillingfleet, Origines Sacrae, vol. i. p.55. Important reference.]
 John vii. 17.
 Ps. cxviii. 19.
 Ps. cxviii. 20.
 [See vol. i. p. 18, First Epistle of Clement, chap. xlviii. S.]
Chapter VIII.--The Sophistical Arts Useless.
But the art of sophistry, which the Greeks cultivated, is a fantastic
power, which makes false opinions like true by means of words. For it
produces rhetoric in order to persuasion, and disputation for
wrangling. These arts, therefore, if not conjoined with philosophy,
will be injurious to every one. For Plato openly called sophistry "an
evil art." And Aristotle, following him, demonstrates it to be a
dishonest art, which abstracts in a specious manner the whole business
of wisdom, and professes a wisdom which it has not studied. To speak
briefly, as the beginning of rhetoric is the probable, and an attempted
proof  the process, and the end persuasion, so the beginning of
disputation is what is matter of opinion, and the process a contest,
and the end victory. For in the same manner, also, the beginning of
sophistry is the apparent, and the process twofold; one of rhetoric,
continuous and exhaustive; and the other of logic, and is
interrogatory. And its end is admiration. The dialectic in vogue in the
schools, on the other hand, is the exercise of a philosopher in matters
of opinion, for the sake of the faculty of disputation. But truth is
not in these at all. With reason, therefore, the noble apostle,
depreciating these superfluous arts occupied about words, says, "If any
man do not give heed to wholesome words, but is puffed up by a kind of
teaching, knowing nothing, but doting (noson) about questions and
strifes of words, whereof cometh contention, envy, railings, evil
surmisings, perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, destitute of
the truth." 
You see how he is moved against them, calling their art of logic--on
which, those to whom this garrulous mischievous art is dear, whether
Greeks or barbarians, plume themselves--a disease (nosos). Very
beautifully, therefore, the tragic poet Euripides says in the
"But a wrongful speech
Is diseased in itself, and needs skilful medicines." 
For the saving Word  is called "wholesome," He being the truth;
and what is wholesome (healthful) remains ever deathless. But
separation from what is healthful and divine is impiety, and a deadly
malady. These are rapacious wolves hid in sheep-skins, men-stealers,
and glozing soul-seducers, secretly, but proved to be robbers; striving
by fraud and force to catch us who are unsophisticated and have less
power of speech.
"Often a man, impeded through want of words, carries less weight
In expressing what is right, than the man of eloquence.
But now in fluent mouths the weightiest truths
They disguise, so that they do not seem what they ought to seem,"
says the tragedy. Such are these wranglers, whether they follow the
sects, or practice miserable dialectic arts. These are they that
"stretch the warp and weave nothing," says the Scripture; 
prosecuting a bootless task, which the apostle has called "cunning
craftiness of men whereby they lie in wait to deceive."  "For
there are," he says, "many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers."
 Wherefore it was not said to all, "Ye are the salt of the
earth."  For there are some even of the hearers of the word who
are like the fishes of the sea, which, reared from their birth in
brine, yet need salt to dress them for food. Accordingly I wholly
approve of the tragedy, when it says:--
"O son, false words can be well spoken,
And truth may be vanquished by beauty of words.
But this is not what is most correct, but nature and what is right;
He who practices eloquence is indeed wise,
But I consider deeds always better than words."
We must not, then, aspire to please the multitude. For we do not
practice what will please them, but what we know is remote from their
disposition. "Let us not be desirous of vainglory," says the apostle,
"provoking one another, envying one another." 
Thus the truth-loving Plato says, as if divinely inspired, "Since I am
such as to obey nothing but the word, which, after reflection, appears
to me the best." 
Accordingly he charges those who credit opinions without intelligence
and knowledge, with abandoning right and sound reason unwarrantably,
and believing him who is a partner in falsehood. For to cheat one's
self of the truth is bad; but to speak the truth, and to hold as our
opinions positive realities, is good.
Men are deprived of what is good unwillingly. Nevertheless they are
deprived either by being deceived or beguiled, or by being compelled
and not believing. He who believes not, has already made himself a
willing captive; and he who changes his persuasion is cozened, while he
forgets that time imperceptibly takes away some things, and reason
others. And after an opinion has been entertained, pain and anguish,
and on the other hand contentiousness and anger, compel. Above all, men
are beguiled who are either bewitched by pleasure or terrified by fear.
And all these are voluntary changes, but by none of these will
knowledge ever be attained.
 1 Tim. vi. 3-5. [He treats the sophists with Platonic scorn, but adopts St. Paul's enlarged idea of sophistry.]
 Phoenissae, 471, 472.
 [He has no idea of salvation by any other name, though he regards Gentile illumination as coming through philosophy.]
 Where, nobody knows.
 Eph. iv. 14.
 Tit. i. 10.
 Matt. v. 13.
 Gal. v. 26.
 Plato, Crito, vi. p. 46.
Chapter IX.--Human Knowledge Necessary for the Understanding of the Scriptures.
Some, who think themselves naturally gifted, do not wish to touch
either philosophy or logic; nay more, they do not wish to learn natural
science. They demand bare faith alone, as if they wished, without
bestowing any care on the vine, straightway to gather clusters from the
first. Now the Lord is figuratively described as the vine, from which,
with pains and the art of husbandry, according to the word, the fruit
is to be gathered.
We must lop, dig, bind, and perform the other operations. The
pruning-knife, I should think, and the pick-axe, and the other
agricultural implements, are necessary for the culture of the vine, so
that it may produce eatable fruit. And as in husbandry, so also in
medicine: he has learned to purpose, who has practiced the various
lessons, so as to be able to cultivate and to heal. So also here, I
call him truly learned who brings everything to bear on the truth; so
that, from geometry, and music, and grammar, and philosophy itself,
culling what is useful, he guards the faith against assault. Now, as
was said, the athlete is despised who is not furnished for the contest.
For instance, too, we praise the experienced helmsman who "has seen the
cities of many men," and the physician who has had large experience;
thus also some describe the empiric.  And he who brings
everything to bear on a right life, procuring examples from the Greeks
and barbarians, this man is an experienced searcher after truth, and in
reality a man of much counsel, like the touch-stone (that is, the
Lydian), which is believed to possess the power of distinguishing the
spurious from the genuine gold. And our much-knowing gnostic can
distinguish sophistry from philosophy, the art of decoration from
gymnastics, cookery from physic, and rhetoric from dialectics, and the
other sects which are according to the barbarian philosophy, from the
truth itself. And how necessary is it for him who desires to be
partaker of the power of God, to treat of intellectual subjects by
philosophising! And how serviceable is it to distinguish expressions
which are ambiguous, and which in the Testaments are used synonymously!
For the Lord, at the time of His temptation, skilfully matched the
devil by an ambiguous expression. And I do not yet, in this connection,
see how in the world the inventor of philosophy and dialectics, as some
suppose, is seduced through being deceived by the form of speech which
consists in ambiguity. And if the prophets and apostles knew not the
arts by which the exercises of philosophy are exhibited, yet the mind
of the prophetic and instructive spirit, uttered secretly, because all
have not an intelligent ear, demands skilful modes of teaching in order
to clear exposition. For the prophets and disciples of the Spirit knew
infallibly their mind. For they knew it by faith, in a way which others
could not easily, as the Spirit has said. But it is not possible for
those who have not learned to receive it thus. "Write," it is said,
"the commandments doubly, in counsel and knowledge, that thou mayest
answer the words of truth to them who send unto thee."  What,
then, is the knowledge of answering? or what that of asking? It is
dialectics. What then? Is not speaking our business, and does not
action proceed from the Word? For if we act not for the Word, we shall
act against reason. But a rational work is accomplished through God.
"And nothing," it is said, "was made without Him"--the Word of God.
And did not the Lord make all things by the Word? Even the beasts work,
driven by compelling fear. And do not those who are called orthodox
apply themselves to good works, knowing not what they do?
 The empirics were a class of physicians who held practice to be the one thing essential.
 Prov. xxii. 20, 21. The Septuagint and Hebrew both differ from the reading here.
 John. i. 3.
Chapter X.--To Act Well of Greater Consequence Than to Speak Well.
Wherefore the Saviour, taking the bread, first spake and blessed. Then
breaking the bread,  He presented it, that we might eat it,
according to reason, and that knowing the Scriptures  we might
walk obediently. And as those whose speech is evil are no better than
those whose practice is evil (for calumny is the servant of the sword,
and evil-speaking inflicts pain; and from these proceed disasters in
life, such being the effects of evil speech); so also those who are
given to good speech are near neighbours to those who accomplish good
deeds. Accordingly discourse refreshes the soul and entices it to
nobleness; and happy is he who has the use of both his hands. Neither,
therefore, is he who can act well to be vilified by him who is able to
speak well; nor is he who is able to speak well to be disparaged by him
who is capable of acting well. But let each do that for which he is
naturally fitted. What the one exhibits as actually done, the other
speaks, preparing, as it were, the way for well-doing, and leading the
hearers to the practice of good. For there is a saving word, as there
is a saving work. Righteousness, accordingly,  is not constituted
without discourse. And as the receiving of good is abolished if we
abolish the doing of good; so obedience and faith are abolished when
neither the command, nor one to expound the command, is taken along
with us.  But now we are benefited mutually and reciprocally by
words and deeds; but we must repudiate entirely the art of wrangling
and sophistry, since these sentences of the sophists not only bewitch
and beguile the many, but sometimes by violence win a Cadmean victory.
 For true above all is that Psalm, "The just shall live to the
end, for he shall not see corruption, when he beholds the wise dying."
 And whom does he call wise? Hear from the Wisdom of Jesus:
"Wisdom is not the knowledge of evil."  Such he calls what the
arts of speaking and of discussing have invented. "Thou shalt therefore
seek wisdom among the wicked, and shalt not find it."  And if you
inquire again of what sort this is, you are told, "The mouth of the
righteous man will distil wisdom."  And similarly with truth, the
art of sophistry is called wisdom.
But it is my purpose, as I reckon, and not without reason, to live
according to the Word, and to understand what is revealed;  but
never affecting eloquence, to be content merely with indicating my
meaning. And by what term that which I wish to present is shown, I care
not. For I well know that to be saved, and to aid those who desire to
be saved, is the best thing, and not to compose paltry sentences like
gewgaws. "And if," says the Pythagorean in the Politicus of Plato, "you
guard against solicitude about terms, you will be richer in wisdom
against old age."  And in the Theoetetus you will find again,
"And carelessness about names, and expressions, and the want of nice
scrutiny, is not vulgar and illiberal for the most part, but rather the
reverse of this, and is sometimes necessary."  This the Scripture
 has expressed with the greatest possible brevity, when it said,
"Be not occupied much about words." For expression is like the dress on
the body. The matter is the flesh and sinews. We must not therefore
care more for the dress than the safety of the body. For not only a
simple mode of life, but also a style of speech devoid of superfluity
and nicety, must be cultivated by him who has adopted the true life, if
we are to abandon luxury as treacherous and profligate, as the ancient
Lacedaemonians adjured ointment and purple, deeming and calling them
rightly treacherous garments and treacherous unguents; since neither is
that mode of preparing food right where there is more of seasoning than
of nutriment; nor is that style of speech elegant which can please
rather than benefit the hearers. Pythagoras exhorts us to consider the
Muses more pleasant than the Sirens, teaching us to cultivate wisdom
apart from pleasure, and exposing the other mode of attracting the soul
as deceptive. For sailing past the Sirens one man has sufficient
strength, and for answering the Sphinx another one, or, if you please,
not even one.  We ought never, then, out of desire for vainglory,
to make broad the phylacteries. It suffices the gnostic  if only
one hearer is found for him.  You may hear therefore Pindar the
Boeotian,  who writes, "Divulge not before all the ancient
speech. The way of silence is sometimes the surest. And the mightiest
word is a spur to the fight." Accordingly, the blessed apostle very
appropriately and urgently exhorts us "not to strive about words to no
profit, but to the subverting of the hearers, but to shun profane and
vain babblings, for they increase unto more ungodliness, and their word
will eat as doth a canker." 
 ["Eat it according to reason." Spiritual food does not stultify reason, nor conflict with the evidence of the senses.]
 [This constant appeal to the Scriptures, noteworthy.]
 [Matt. xii. 37.]
 [Acts viii. 30.]
 A victory disastrous to the victor and the vanquished.
 Ps. xlviii. 10, 11, Sept.
 Ecclus. xix. 22.
 Prov. xiv. 6.
 Prov. x. 31.
 [Revelation is complete, and nothing new to be expected. Gal. i. 8, 9.]
 Plato's Politicus, p. 261 E.
 Plato's Theaetetus, p. 184 C.
 [2 Tim. ii. 14.]
 The story of OEdipus being a myth.
 The possessor of true divine knowledge
 "[Fit audience find though few." Paradise Lost, book. vii. 31. Dante has the same thought. Pindar's phonanta sunetoisn, Olymp., ii. 35.]
 [Here I am sorry I cannot supply the proper reference. Clement shows his Attic prejudice in adding the epithet, here and elsewhere (Boeotian), which Pindar felt so keenly, and resents more than once. Olymp., vi. vol. i. p. 75. Ed. Heyne, London, 1823.]
 2 Tim. ii. 14, 16, 17.
Chapter XI.--What is the Philosophy Which the Apostle Bids Us Shun?
This, then, "the wisdom of the world is foolishness with God," and of
those who are "the wise the Lord knoweth their thoughts that they are
vain."  Let no man therefore glory on account of pre-eminence in
human thought. For it is written well in Jeremiah, "Let not the wise
man glory in his wisdom, and let not the mighty man glory in his might,
and let not the rich man glory in his riches: but let him that glorieth
glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth that I am the Lord,
that executeth mercy and judgment and righteousness upon the earth: for
in these things is my delight, saith the Lord."  "That we should
trust not in ourselves, but in God who raiseth the dead," says the
apostle, "who delivered us from so great a death, that our faith should
not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God." "For the
spiritual man judgeth all things, but he himself is judged of no man."
 I hear also those words of his, "And these things I say, lest
any man should beguile you with enticing words, or one should enter in
to spoil you."  And again, "Beware lest any man spoil you through
philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the
rudiments of the world, and not after Christ;"  branding not all
philosophy, but the Epicurean, which Paul mentions in the Acts of the
Apostles,  which abolishes providence and deifies pleasure, and
whatever other philosophy honours the elements, but places not over
them the efficient cause, nor apprehends the Creator. 
The Stoics also, whom he mentions too, say not well that the Deity,
being a body, pervades the vilest matter. He calls the jugglery of
logic "the tradition of men." Wherefore also he adds, "Avoid juvenile
 questions. For such contentions are puerile." "But virtue is no
lover of boys," says the philosopher Plato. And our struggle, according
to Gorgias Leontinus, requires two virtues--boldness and
wisdom,--boldness to undergo danger, and wisdom to understand the
enigma. For the Word, like the Olympian proclamation, calls him who is
willing, and crowns him who is able to continue unmoved as far as the
truth is concerned. And, in truth, the Word does not wish him who has
believed to be idle. For He says, "Seek, and ye shall find."  But
seeking ends in finding, driving out the empty trifling, and approving
of the contemplation which confirms our faith. "And this I say, lest
any man beguile you with enticing words,"  says the apostle,
evidently as having learned to distinguish what was said by him, and as
being taught to meet objections. "As ye have therefore received Christ
Jesus the Lord, so walk in Him, rooted and built up in Him, and
stablished in the faith."  Now persuasion is [the means of] being
established in the faith. "Beware lest any man spoil you of faith in
Christ by philosophy and vain deceit," which does away with providence,
"after the tradition of men;" for the philosophy which is in accordance
with divine tradition establishes and confirms providence, which, being
done away with, the economy of the Saviour appears a myth, while we are
influenced "after the elements of the world, and not after Christ."
 For the teaching which is agreeable to Christ deifies the
Creator, and traces providence in particular events,  and knows
the nature of the elements to be capable of change and production, and
teaches that we ought to aim at rising up to the power which
assimilates to God, and to prefer the dispensation  as holding
the first rank and superior to all training.
The elements are worshipped,--the air by Diogenes, the water by Thales,
the fire by Hippasus; and by those who suppose atoms to be the first
principles of things, arrogating the name of philosophers, being
wretched creatures devoted to pleasure.  "Wherefore I pray," says
the apostle, "that your love may abound yet more and more, in knowledge
and in all judgment, that ye may approve things that are excellent."
 "Since, when we were children," says the same apostle, "we were
kept in bondage under the rudiments of the world. And the child, though
heir, differeth nothing from a servant, till the time appointed of the
father."  Philosophers, then, are children, unless they have been
made men by Christ. "For if the son of the bond woman shall not be heir
with the son of the free,"  at least he is the seed of Abraham,
though not of promise, receiving what belongs to him by free gift. "But
strong meat belongeth to those that are of full age, even those who by
reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and
evil."  "For every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word
of righteousness; for he is a babe,"  and not yet acquainted with
the word, according to which he has believed and works, and not able to
give a reason in himself. "Prove all things," the apostle says, "and
hold fast that which is good,"  speaking to spiritual men, who
judge what is said according to truth, whether it seems or truly holds
by the truth. "He who is not corrected by discipline errs, and stripes
and reproofs give the discipline of wisdom," the reproofs manifestly
that are with love. "For the right heart seeketh knowledge." 
"For he that seeketh the Lord shall find knowledge with righteousness;
and they who have sought it rightly have found peace."  "And I
will know," it is said, "not the speech of those which are puffed up,
but the power." In rebuke of those who are wise in appearance, and
think themselves wise, but are not in reality wise, he writes: "For the
kingdom of God is not in word."  It is not in that which is not
true, but which is only probable according to opinion; but he said "in
power," for the truth alone is powerful. And again: "If any man
thinketh that he knoweth anything, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought
to know." For truth is never mere opinion. But the "supposition of
knowledge inflates," and fills with pride; "but charity edifieth,"
which deals not in supposition, but in truth. Whence it is said, "If
any man loves, he is known." 
 1 Cor. iii. 19, 20.
 Jer. ix. 23, 24.
 2 Cor. i. 9, 10; 1 Cor. ii. 5, 15.
 Col. ii. 4, 8.
 Col. ii. 8.
 Acts xvii. 18.
 [Revived by some "scientists" of our days.]
 The apostle says "foolish," 2 Tim. ii. 23.
 Matt. vii. 7.
 Col. ii. 4.
 Col. ii. 6, 7.
 Col. ii. 8.
 [A special Providence notably recognised as a Christian truth.]
 i.e., of the Gospel.
 [The Epicureans whom he censures just before.]
 Phil. i. 9, 10.
 Gal. iv. 1, 2, 3.
 Gen. xxi. 10; Gal. iv. 30.
 Heb. v. 14.
 Heb. v. 13.
 1 Thess. v. 21.
 Prov. xv. 14.
 The substance of these remarks is found in Prov. ii.
 1 Cor. iv. 19, 20.
 1 Cor. viii. 1, 2, 3.
Chapter XII.--The Mysteries of the Faith Not to Be Divulged to All.
But since this tradition is not published alone for him who perceives
the magnificence of the word; it is requisite, therefore, to hide in a
mystery the wisdom spoken, which the Son of God taught. Now, therefore,
Isaiah the prophet has his tongue purified by fire, so that he may be
able to tell the vision. And we must purify not the tongue alone, but
also the ears, if we attempt to be partakers of the truth.
Such were the impediments in the way of my writing. And even now I
fear, as it is said, "to cast the pearls before swine, lest they tread
them under foot, and turn and rend us."  For it is difficult to
exhibit the really pure and transparent words respecting the true
light, to swinish and untrained hearers. For scarcely could anything
which they could hear be more ludicrous than these to the multitude;
nor any subjects on the other hand more admirable or more inspiring to
those of noble nature. "But the natural man receiveth not the things of
the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness to him."  But the
wise do not utter with their mouth what they reason in council. "But
what ye hear in the ear," says the Lord, "proclaim upon the houses;"
 bidding them receive the secret traditions  of the true
knowledge, and expound them aloft and conspicuously; and as we have
heard in the ear, so to deliver them to whom it is requisite; but not
enjoining us to communicate to all without distinction, what is said to
them in parables. But there is only a delineation in the memoranda,
which have the truth sowed sparse  and broadcast, that it may
escape the notice of those who pick up seeds like jackdaws; but when
they find a good husbandman, each one of them will germinate and
 Matt. vii. 6.
 1 Cor. ii. 14.
 Matt. x. 27.
 [See Elucidation X., infra.]
 [A word (sparse) hitherto branded as an "Americanism."]
Chapter XIII.--All Sects of Philosophy Contain a Germ of Truth.
Since, therefore, truth is one (for falsehood has ten thousand
by-paths); just as the Bacchantes tore asunder the limbs of Pentheus,
so the sects both of barbarian and Hellenic philosophy have done with
truth, and each vaunts as the whole truth the portion which has fallen
to its lot. But all, in my opinion,  are illuminated by the dawn
of Light.  Let all, therefore, both Greeks and barbarians, who
have aspired after the truth,--both those who possess not a little, and
those who have any portion,--produce whatever they have of the word of
Eternity, for instance, presents in an instant the future and the
present, also the past of time. But truth, much more powerful than
limitless duration, can collect its proper germs, though they have
fallen on foreign soil. For we shall find that very many of the dogmas
that are held by such sects as have not become utterly senseless, and
are not cut out from the order of nature (by cutting off Christ, as the
women of the fable dismembered the man),  though appearing unlike
one another, correspond in their origin and with the truth as a whole.
For they coincide in one, either as a part, or a species, or a genus.
For instance, though the highest note is different from the lowest
note, yet both compose one harmony. And in numbers an even number
differs from an odd number; but both suit in arithmetic; as also is the
case with figure, the circle, and the triangle, and the square, and
whatever figures differ from one another. Also, in the whole universe,
all the parts, though differing one from another, preserve their
relation to the whole. So, then, the barbarian and Hellenic philosophy
has torn off a fragment of eternal truth not from the mythology of
Dionysus, but from the theology of the ever-living Word. And He who
brings again together the separate fragments, and makes them one, will
without peril, be assured, contemplate the perfect Word, the truth.
Therefore it is written in Ecclesiastes: "And I added wisdom above all
who were before me in Jerusalem; and my heart saw many things; and
besides, I knew wisdom and knowledge, parables and understanding. And
this also is the choice of the spirit, because in abundance of wisdom
is abundance of knowledge."  He who is conversant with all kinds
of wisdom, will be pre-eminently a gnostic.  Now it is written,
"Abundance of the knowledge of wisdom will give life to him who is of
it."  And again, what is said is confirmed more clearly by this
saying, "All things are in the sight of those who understand"--all
things, both Hellenic and barbarian; but the one or the other is not
all. "They are right to those who wish to receive understanding. Choose
instruction, and not silver, and knowledge above tested gold," and
prefer also sense to pure gold; "for wisdom is better than precious
stones, and no precious thing is worth it." 
 [Here he expresses merely as an opinion, his "gnostic" ideas as to philosophy, and the salvability of the heathen.]
 Namely Jesus: John viii. 12.
 We have adopted the translation of Potter, who supposes a reference to the fate of Pentheus. Perhaps the translation should be: "excluding Christ, as the apartments destined for women exclude the man;" i.e., all males.
 Eccles. i. 16, 17, 18.
 [His grudging of the term "gnostic" to unworthy pretenders, illustrates the spirit in which we must refuse to recognise the modern (Trent) theology of the Latins, as in any sense Catholic.]
 Eccles. vii. 13, according to Sept.
 Prov. viii. 9, 10, 11.
Chapter XIV.--Succession of Philosophers in Greece.
The Greeks say, that after Orpheus and Linus, and the most ancient of
the poets that appeared among them, the seven, called wise, were the
first that were admired for their wisdom. Of whom four were of
Asia--Thales of Miletus, and Bias of Priene, Pittacus of Mitylene, and
Cleobulus of Lindos; and two of Europe, Solon the Athenian, and Chilon
the Lacedaemonian; and the seventh, some say, was Periander of Corinth;
others, Anacharsis the Scythian; others, Epimenides the Cretan, whom
Paul knew as a Greek prophet, whom he mentions in the Epistle to Titus,
where he speaks thus: "One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said,
The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. And this
witness is true."  You see how even to the prophets of the Greeks
he attributes something of the truth, and is not ashamed,  when
discoursing for the edification of some and the shaming of others, to
make use of Greek poems. Accordingly to the Corinthians (for this is
not the only instance), while discoursing on the resurrection of the
dead, he makes use of a tragic Iambic line, when he said, "What
advantageth it me if the dead are not raised? Let us eat and drink, for
to-morrow we die. Be not deceived; evil communications corrupt good
manners."  Others have enumerated Acusilaus the Argive among the
seven wise men; and others, Pherecydes of Syros. And Plato substitutes
Myso the Chenian for Periander, whom he deemed unworthy of wisdom, on
account of his having reigned as a tyrant. That the wise men among the
Greeks flourished after the age of Moses, will, a little after, be
shown. But the style of philosophy among them, as Hebraic and
enigmatical, is now to be considered. They adopted brevity, as suited
for exhortation, and most useful. Even Plato says, that of old this
mode was purposely in vogue among all the Greeks, especially the
Lacedaemonians and Cretans, who enjoyed the best laws.
The expression, "Know thyself," some supposed to be Chilon's. But
Chamaeleon, in his book About the Gods, ascribes it to Thales;
Aristotle to the Pythian. It may be an injunction to the pursuit of
knowledge. For it is not possible to know the parts without the essence
of the whole; and one must study the genesis of the universe, that
thereby we may be able to learn the nature of man. Again, to Chilon the
Lacedaemonian they attribute, "Let nothing be too much."  Strato,
in his book Of Inventions, ascribes the apophthegm to Stratodemus of
Tegea. Didymus assigns it to Solon; as also to Cleobulus the saying, "A
middle course is best." And the expression, "Come under a pledge, and
mischief is at hand," Cleomenes says, in his book Concerning Hesiod,
was uttered before by Homer in the lines:--
"Wretched pledges, for the wretched, to be pledged." 
The Aristotelians judge it to be Chilon's; but Didymus says the advice
was that of Thales. Then, next in order, the saying, "All men are bad,"
or, "The most of men are bad" (for the same apophthegm is expressed in
two ways), Sotades the Byzantian says that it was Bias's. And the
aphorism, "Practice conquers everything,"  they will have it to
be Periander's; and likewise the advice, "Know the opportunity," to
have been a saying of Pittacus. Solon made laws for the Athenians,
Pittacus for the Mitylenians. And at a late date, Pythagoras, the pupil
of Pherecydes, first called himself a philosopher. Accordingly, after
the fore-mentioned three men, there were three schools of philosophy,
named after the places where they lived: the Italic from Pythagoras,
the Ionic from Thales, the Eleatic from Xenophanes. Pythagoras was a
Samian, the son of Mnesarchus, as Hippobotus says: according to
Aristoxenus, in his life of Pythagoras and Aristarchus and Theopompus,
he was a Tuscan; and according to Neanthes, a Syrian or a Tyrian. So
that Pythagoras was, according to the most, of barbarian extraction.
Thales, too, as Leander and Herodotus relate, was a Phoenician; as some
suppose, a Milesian. He alone seems to have met the prophets of the
Egyptians. But no one is described as his teacher, nor is any one
mentioned as the teacher of Pherecydes of Syros, who had Pythagoras as
his pupil. But the Italic philosophy, that of Pythagoras, grew old in
Metapontum in Italy. Anaximander of Miletus, the son of Praxiades,
succeeded Thales; and was himself succeeded by Anaximenes of Miletus,
the son of Eurustratus; after whom came Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, the
son of Hegesibulus.  He transferred his school from Ionia to
Athens. He was succeeded by Archelaus, whose pupil Socrates was.
"From these turned aside, the stone-mason;
Talker about laws; the enchanter of the Greeks,"
says Timon in his Satirical Poems, on account of his quitting physics
for ethics. Antisthenes, after being a pupil of Socrates, introduced
the Cynic philosophy; and Plato withdrew to the Academy. Aristotle,
after studying philosophy under Plato, withdrew to the Lyceum, and
founded the Peripatetic sect. He was succeeded by Theophrastus, who was
succeeded by Strato, and he by Lycon, then Critolaus, and then
Diodorus. Speusippus was the successor of Plato; his successor was
Xenocrates; and the successor of the latter, Polemo. And the disciples
of Polemo were Crates and Crantor, in whom the old Academy founded by
Plato ceased. Arcesilaus was the associate of Crantor; from whom, down
to Hegesilaus, the Middle Academy flourished. Then Carneades succeeded
Hegesilaus, and others came in succession. The disciple of Crates was
Zeno of Citium, the founder of the Stoic sect. He was succeeded by
Cleanthes; and the latter by Chrysippus, and others after him.
Xenophanes of Colophon was the founder of the Eleatic school, who,
Timaeus says, lived in the time of Hiero, lord of Sicily, and
Epicharmus the poet; and Apollodorus says that he was born in the
fortieth Olympiad, and reached to the times of Darius and Cyrus.
Parmenides, accordingly, was the disciple of Xenophanes, and Zeno of
him; then came Leucippus, and then Democritus. Disciples of Democritus
were Protagoras of Abdera, and Metrodorus of Chios, whose pupil was
Diogenes of Smyrna; and his again Anaxarchus, and his Pyrrho, and his
Nausiphanes. Some say that Epicurus was a scholar of his.
Such, in an epitome, is the succession of the philosophers among the
Greeks. The periods of the originators of their philosophy are now to
be specified successively, in order that, by comparison, we may show
that the Hebrew philosophy was older by many generations. 
It has been said of Xenophanes that he was the founder of the Eleatic
philosophy. And Eudemus, in the Astrological Histories, says that
Thales foretold the eclipse of the sun, which took place at the time
that the Medians and the Lydians fought, in the reign of Cyaxares the
father of Astyages over the Medes, and of Alyattus the son of Croesus
over the Lydians. Herodotus in his first book agrees with him. The date
is about the fiftieth Olympiad. Pythagoras is ascertained to have lived
in the days of Polycrates the tyrant, about the sixty-second Olympiad.
Mnesiphilus is described as a follower of Solon, and was a contemporary
of Themistocles. Solon therefore flourished about the forty-sixth
Olympiad. For Heraclitus, the son of Bauso, persuaded Melancomas the
tyrant to abdicate his sovereignty. He despised the invitation of king
Darius to visit the Persians.
 Tit. i. 12, 13.
 [Though Canon Farrar minimizes the Greek scholarship of St. Paul, as is now the fashion, I think Clement credits him with Greek learning. The apostle's example seems to have inspired the philosophical arguments of Clement, as well as his exuberance of poetical and mythological quotation.]
 1 Cor. xv. 32, 33.
 "Nequid Nimis." Meden agan.
 Odyss., viii. 351.
 Melete panta kathairei.
 Or Eubulus.
 [Clement's Attic scholarship never seduces him from this fidelity to the Scriptures. The argument from superior antiquity was one which the Greeks were sure to feel when demonstrated.]
Chapter XV.--The Greek Philosophy in Great Part Derived from the Barbarians.
These are the times of the oldest wise men and philosophers among the
Greeks. And that the most of them were barbarians by extraction, and
were trained among barbarians, what need is there to say? Pythagoras is
shown to have been either a Tuscan or a Tyrian. And Antisthenes was a
Phrygian. And Orpheus was an Odrysian or a Thracian. The most, too,
show Homer to have been an Egyptian. Thales was a Phoenician by birth,
and was said to have consorted with the prophets of the Egyptians; as
also Pythagoras did with the same persons, by whom he was circumcised,
that he might enter the adytum and learn from the Egyptians the mystic
philosophy. He held converse with the chief of the Chaldeans and the
Magi; and he gave a hint of the church, now so called, in the common
hall  which he maintained.
And Plato does not deny that he procured all that is most excellent in
philosophy from the barbarians; and he admits that he came into Egypt.
Whence, writing in the Phoedo that the philosopher can receive aid from
all sides, he said: "Great indeed is Greece, O Cebes, in which
everywhere there are good men, and many are the races of the
barbarians."  Thus Plato thinks that some of the barbarians, too,
are philosophers. But Epicurus, on the other hand, supposes that only
Greeks can philosophise. And in the Symposium, Plato, lauding the
barbarians as practising philosophy with conspicuous excellence, 
truly says: "And in many other instances both among Greeks and
barbarians, whose temples reared for such sons are already numerous."
And it is clear that the barbarians signally honoured their lawgivers
and teachers, designating them gods. For, according to Plato, "they
think that good souls, on quitting the super-celestial region, submit
to come to this Tartarus; and assuming a body, share in all the ills
which are involved in birth, from their solicitude for the race of
men;" and these make laws and publish philosophy, "than which no
greater boon ever came from the gods to the race of men, or will come."
And as appears to me, it was in consequence of perceiving the great
benefit which is conferred through wise men, that the men themselves
were honoured and philosophy cultivated publicly by all the Brahmins,
and the Odrysi, and the Getae. And such were strictly deified by the
race of the Egyptians, by the Chaldeans and the Arabians, called the
Happy, and those that inhabited Palestine, by not the least portion of
the Persian race, and by innumerable other races besides these. And it
is well known that Plato is found perpetually celebrating the
barbarians, remembering that both himself and Pythagoras learned the
most and the noblest of their dogmas among the barbarians. Wherefore he
also called the races of the barbarians, "races of barbarian
philosophers," recognising, in the Phoedrus, the Egyptian king, and
shows him to us wiser than Theut, whom he knew to be Hermes. But in the
Charmides, it is manifest that he knew certain Thracians who were said
to make the soul immortal. And Pythagoras is reported to have been a
disciple of Sonches the Egyptian arch-prophet; and Plato, of Sechnuphis
of Heliopolis; and Eudoxus, of Cnidius of Konuphis, who was also an
Egyptian. And in his book, On the Soul,  Plato again manifestly
recognises prophecy, when he introduces a prophet announcing the word
of Lachesis, uttering predictions to the souls whose destiny is
becoming fixed. And in the Timaeus he introduces Solon, the very wise,
learning from the barbarian. The substance of the declaration is to the
following effect: "O Solon, Solon, you Greeks are always children. And
no Greek is an old man. For you have no learning that is hoary with
Democritus appropriated the Babylonian ethic discourses, for he is said
to have combined with his own compositions a translation of the column
of Acicarus.  And you may find the distinction notified by him
when he writes, "Thus says Democritus." About himself, too, where,
pluming himself on his erudition, he says, "I have roamed over the most
ground of any man of my time, investigating the most remote parts. I
have seen the most skies and lands, and I have heard of learned men in
very great numbers. And in composition no one has surpassed me; in
demonstration, not even those among the Egyptians who are called
Arpenodaptae, with all of whom I lived in exile up to eighty years."
For he went to Babylon, and Persis, and Egypt, to learn from the Magi
and the priests.
Zoroaster the Magus, Pythagoras showed to be a Persian. Of the secret
books of this man, those who follow the heresy of Prodicus boast to be
in possession. Alexander, in his book On the Pythagorean Symbols,
relates that Pythagoras was a pupil of Nazaratus the Assyrian 
(some think that he is Ezekiel; but he is not, as will afterwards be
shown), and will have it that, in addition to these, Pythagoras was a
hearer of the Galatae and the Brahmins. Clearchus the Peripatetic says
that he knew a Jew who associated with Aristotle.  Heraclitus
says that, not humanly, but rather by God's aid, the Sibyl spoke.
 They say, accordingly, that at Delphi a stone was shown beside
the oracle, on which, it is said, sat the first Sibyl, who came from
Helicon, and had been reared by the Muses. But some say that she came
from Milea, being the daughter of Lamia of Sidon.  And Serapion,
in his epic verses, says that the Sibyl, even when dead, ceased not
from divination. And he writes that, what proceeded from her into the
air after her death, was what gave oracular utterances in voices and
omens; and on her body being changed into earth, and the grass as
natural growing out of it, whatever beasts happening to be in that
place fed on it exhibited to men an accurate knowledge of futurity by
their entrails. He thinks also, that the face seen in the moon is her
soul. So much for the Sibyl.
Numa the king of the Romans was a Pythagorean, and aided by the
precepts of Moses, prohibited from making an image of God in human
form, and of the shape of a living creature. Accordingly, during the
first hundred and seventy years, though building temples, they made no
cast or graven image. For Numa secretly showed them that the Best of
Beings could not be apprehended except by the mind alone. Thus
philosophy, a thing of the highest utility, flourished in antiquity
among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations. And
afterwards it came to Greece. First in its ranks were the prophets of
the Egyptians; and the Chaldeans among the Assyrians; and the Druids
among the Gauls; and the Samanaeans among the Bactrians; and the
philosophers of the Celts; and the Magi of the Persians, who foretold
the Saviour's birth, and came into the land of Judaea guided by a star.
The Indian gymnosophists are also in the number, and the other
barbarian philosophers. And of these there are two classes, some of
them called Sarmanae,  and others Brahmins. And those of the
Sarmanae who are called Hylobii  neither inhabit cities, nor have
roofs over them, but are clothed in the bark of trees, feed on nuts,
and drink water in their hands. Like those called Encratites in the
present day, they know not marriage nor begetting of children.
Some, too, of the Indians obey the precepts of Buddha;  whom, on
account of his extraordinary sanctity, they have raised to divine
Anacharsis was a Scythian, and is recorded to have excelled many
philosophers among the Greeks. And the Hyperboreans, Hellanicus
relates, dwelt beyond the Riphaean mountains, and inculcated justice,
not eating flesh, but using nuts. Those who are sixty years old they
take without the gates, and do away with. There are also among the
Germans those called sacred women, who, by inspecting the whirlpools of
rivers and the eddies, and observing the noises of streams, presage and
predict future events.  These did not allow the men to fight
against Caesar till the new moon shone.
Of all these, by far the oldest is the Jewish race; and that their
philosophy committed to writing has the precedence of philosophy among
the Greeks, the Pythagorean Philo  shows at large; and, besides
him, Aristobulus the Peripatetic, and several others, not to waste
time, in going over them by name. Very clearly the author Megasthenes,
the contemporary of Seleucus Nicanor, writes as follows in the third of
his books, On Indian Affairs: "All that was said about nature by the
ancients is said also by those who philosophise beyond Greece: some
things by the Brahmins among the Indians, and others by those called
Jews in Syria." Some more fabulously say that certain of those called
the Idaean Dactyli were the first wise men; to whom are attributed the
invention of what are called the "Ephesian letters," and of numbers in
music. For which reason dactyls in music received their name. And the
Idaean Dactyli were Phrygians and barbarians. Herodotus relates that
Hercules, having grown a sage and a student of physics, received from
the barbarian Atlas, the Phrygian, the columns of the universe; the
fable meaning that he received by instruction the knowledge of the
heavenly bodies. And Hermippus of Berytus calls Charon the Centaur
wise; about whom, he that wrote The Battle of the Titans says, "that he
first led the race of mortals to righteousness, by teaching them the
solemnity of the oath, and propitiatory sacrifices and the figures of
Olympus." By him Achilles, who fought at Troy, was taught. And Hippo,
the daughter of the Centaur, who dwelt with AEolus, taught him her
father's science, the knowledge of physics. Euripides also testifies of
Hippo as follows:--
"Who first, by oracles, presaged,
And by the rising stars, events divine."
By this AEolus, Ulysses was received as a guest after the taking of
Troy. Mark the epochs by comparison with the age of Moses, and with the
high antiquity of the philosophy promulgated by him.
 Greece is ample, O Cebes, in which everywhere there are good men; and many are the races of the barbarians, over all of whom you must search, seeking such a physician, sparing neither money nor pains.--Phaedo, p. 78 A.
 This sense is obtained by the omission of monous from the text, which may have crept in in consequence of occuring in the previous text, to make it agree with what Plato says, which is, "And both among Greeks and barbarians, there are many who have shown many and illustrious deeds, generating virtue of every kind, to whom many temples on account of such sons are raised."--Symp., p. 209 E.
 Plato, Timaeus, p. 47 A.
 A mistake of Clement for The Republic.
 Timaeus, p. 22 B.
 About which the learned have tortured themselves greatly. The reference is doubtless here to some pillar inscribed with what was deemed a writing of importance. But as to Acicarus nothing is known.
 Otherwise Zaratus, or Zabratus, or Zaras, who, Huet says, was Zoroaster.
 [Direct testimony, establishing one important fact in the history of philosophy.]
 Adopting Lowth's emendation, Sibullen phanai.
 Or, according to the reading in Pausanias, and the statement of Plutarch, "who was the daughter of Poseidon."
 Or Samanaei.
 Altered for Allobioi in accordance with the note of Montacutius, who cites Strabo as an authority for the existence of a sect of Indian sages called Hylobii, hulobioi--Silvicolae.
 Caesar, Gallic War, book i. chap. 50.
 Sozomen also calls Philo a Pythagorean.
Chapter XVI.--That the Inventors of Other Arts Were Mostly Barbarians.
And barbarians were inventors not only of philosophy, but almost of
every art. The Egyptians were the first to introduce astrology among
men. Similarly also the Chaldeans. The Egyptians first showed how to
burn lamps, and divided the year into twelve months, prohibited
intercourse with women in the temples, and enacted that no one should
enter the temples  from a woman without bathing. Again, they were
the inventors of geometry. There are some who say that the Carians
invented prognostication by the stars. The Phrygians were the first who
attended to the flight of birds. And the Tuscans, neighbours of Italy,
were adepts at the art of the Haruspex. The Isaurians and the Arabians
invented augury, as the Telmesians divination by dreams. The Etruscans
invented the trumpet, and the Phrygians the flute. For Olympus and
Marsyas were Phrygians. And Cadmus, the inventor of letters among the
Greeks, as Euphorus says, was a Phoenician; whence also Herodotus
writes that they were called Phoenician letters. And they say that the
Phoenicians and the Syrians first invented letters; and that Apis, an
aboriginal inhabitant of Egypt, invented the healing art before Io came
into Egypt. But afterwards they say that Asclepius improved the art.
Atlas the Libyan was the first who built a ship and navigated the sea.
Kelmis and Damnaneus, Idaean Dactyli, first discovered iron in Cyprus.
Another Idaean discovered the tempering of brass; according to Hesiod,
a Scythian. The Thracians first invented what is called a scimitar
(harpe),--it is a curved sword,--and were the first to use shields on
horseback. Similarly also the Illyrians invented the shield (pelte).
Besides, they say that the Tuscans invented the art of moulding clay;
and that Itanus (he was a Samnite) first fashioned the oblong shield
(thureos). Cadmus the Phoenician invented stonecutting, and discovered
the gold mines on the Pangaean mountain. Further, another nation, the
Cappadocians, first invented the instrument called the nabla, 
and the Assyrians in the same way the dichord. The Carthaginians were
the first that constructed a trireme; and it was built by Bosporus, an
aboriginal.  Medea, the daughter of AEetas, a Colchian, first
invented the dyeing of hair. Besides, the Noropes (they are a Paeonian
race, and are now called the Norici) worked copper, and were the first
that purified iron. Amycus the king of the Bebryci was the first
inventor of boxing-gloves.  In music, Olympus the Mysian
practiced the Lydian harmony; and the people called Troglodytes
invented the sambuca,  a musical instrument. It is said that the
crooked pipe was invented by Satyrus the Phrygian; likewise also
diatonic harmony by Hyagnis, a Phrygian too; and notes by Olympus, a
Phrygian; as also the Phrygian harmony, and the half-Phrygian and the
half-Lydian, by Marsyas, who belonged to the same region as those
mentioned above. And the Doric was invented by Thamyris the Thracian.
We have heard that the Persians were the first who fashioned the
chariot, and bed, and footstool; and the Sidonians the first to
construct a trireme. The Sicilians, close to Italy, were the first
inventors of the phorminx, which is not much inferior to the lyre. And
they invented castanets. In the time of Semiramis queen of the
Assyrians,  they relate that linen garments were invented. And
Hellanicus says that Atossa queen of the Persians was the first who
composed a letter. These things are reported by Scamo of Mitylene,
Theophrastus of Ephesus, Cydippus of Mantinea, also Antiphanes,
Aristodemus, and Aristotle; and besides these, Philostephanus, and also
Strato the Peripatetic, in his books Concerning Inventions. I have
added a few details from them, in order to confirm the inventive and
practically useful genius of the barbarians, by whom the Greeks
profited in their studies. And if any one objects to the barbarous
language, Anacharsis says, "All the Greeks speak Scythian to me." It
was he who was held in admiration by the Greeks, who said, "My covering
is a cloak; my supper, milk and cheese." You see that the barbarian
philosophy professes deeds, not words. The apostle thus speaks: "So
likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue a word easy to be
understood, how shall ye know what is spoken? for ye shall speak into
the air. There are, it may be, so many kind of voices in the world, and
none of them is without signification. Therefore if I know not the
meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian,
and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me." And, "Let him that
speaketh in an unknown tongue pray that he may interpret." 
Nay more, it was late before the teaching and writing of discourses
reached Greece. Alcmaeon, the son of Perithus, of Crotona, first
composed a treatise on nature. And it is related that Anaxagoras of
Clazomenae, the son of Hegesibulus, first published a book in writing.
The first to adapt music to poetical compositions was Terpander of
Antissa; and he set the laws of the Lacedaemonians to music. Lasus of
Hermione invented the dithyramb; Stesichorus of Himera, the hymn;
Alcman the Spartan, the choral song; Anacreon of Teos, love songs;
Pindar the Theban, the dance accompanied with song. Timotheus of
Miletus was the first to execute those musical compositions called
nomoi on the lyre, with dancing. Moreover, the iambus was invented by
Archilochus of Paros, and the choliambus by Hipponax of Ephesus.
Tragedy owed its origin to Thespis the Athenian, and comedy to Susarion
of Icaria. Their dates are handed down by the grammarians. But it were
tedious to specify them accurately: presently, however, Dionysus, on
whose account the Dionysian spectacles are celebrated, will be shown to
be later than Moses. They say that Antiphon of Rhamnusium, the son of
Sophilus, first invented scholastic discourses and rhetorical figures,
and was the first who pled causes for a fee, and wrote a forensic
speech for delivery,  as Diodorus says. And Apollodorus of Cuma
first assumed the name of critic, and was called a grammarian. Some say
it was Eratosthenes of Cyrene who was first so called, since he
published two books which he entitled Grammatica.The first who was
called a grammarian, as we now use the term, was Praxiphanes, the son
of Disnysophenes of Mitylene. Zeleucus the Locrian was reported to have
been the first to have framed laws (in writing). Others say that it was
Menos the son of Zeus, in the time of Lynceus. He comes after Danaus,
in the eleventh generation from Inachus and Moses; as we shall show a
little further on. And Lycurgus, who lived many years after the taking
of Troy, legislated for the Lacedaemonians a hundred and fifty years
before the Olympiads. We have spoken before of the age of Solon. Draco
(he was a legislator too) is discovered to have lived about the three
hundred and ninth Olympiad. Antilochus, again, who wrote of the learned
men from the age of Pythagoras to the death of Epicurus, which took
place in the tenth day of the month Gamelion, makes up altogether three
hundred and twelve years. Moreover, some say that Phanothea, the wife
of Icarius, invented the heroic hexameter; others Themis, one of the
Titanides. Didymus, however, in his work On the Pythagorean Philosophy,
relates that Theano of Crotona was the first woman who cultivated
philosophy and composed poems. The Hellenic philosophy then, according
to some, apprehended the truth accidentally, dimly, partially; as
others will have it, was set a-going by the devil. Several suppose that
certain powers, descending from heaven, inspired the whole of
philosophy. But if the Hellenic philosophy comprehends not the whole
extent of the truth, and besides is destitute of strength to perform
the commandments of the Lord, yet it prepares the way for the truly
royal teaching; training in some way or other, and moulding the
character, and fitting him who believes in Providence for the reception
of the truth. 
 [Elucidation XI. infra; also p. 428, infra.]
 nabla and naula, Lat. nablium; doubtless the Hebrew nvl (psaltery, A. V.), described by Josephus as a lyre or harp of twelve strings (in Ps. xxxiii. it is said ten), and played with the fingers. Jerome says it was triangular in shape.
 autochthon, Eusebius. The text has autoschedion, off-hand.
 Literally, fist-straps, the caestus of the boxers.
 sambuke, a triangular lyre with four strings.
 "King of the Egyptians" in the mss. of Clement. The correction is made from Eusebius, who extracts the passage.
 1 Cor. xiv. 9, 10, 11, 13.
 By one or other of the parties in the case, it being a practice of advocates in ancient times to compose speeches which the litigants delivered.
 [Elucidation XII., infra.]
Chapter XVII.--On the Saying of the Saviour, "All that Came Before Me Were Thieves and Robbers." 
But, say they, it is written, "All who were before the Lord's advent
are thieves and robbers." All, then, who are in the Word (for it is
these that were previous to the incarnation of the Word) are understood
generally. But the prophets, being sent and inspired by the Lord, were
not thieves, but servants. The Scripture accordingly says, "Wisdom sent
her servants, inviting with loud proclamation to a goblet of wine."
But philosophy, it is said, was not sent by the Lord, but came stolen,
or given by a thief. It was then some power or angel that had learned
something of the truth, but abode not in it, that inspired and taught
these things, not without the Lord's knowledge, who knew before the
constitution of each essence the issues of futurity, but without His
For the theft which reached men then, had some advantage; not that he
who perpetrated the theft had utility in his eye, but Providence
directed the issue of the audacious deed to utility. I know that many
are perpetually assailing us with the allegation, that not to prevent a
thing happening, is to be the cause of it happening. For they say, that
the man who does not take precaution against a theft, or does not
prevent it, is the cause of it: as he is the cause of the conflagration
who has not quenched it at the beginning; and the master of the vessel
who does not reef the sail, is the cause of the shipwreck. Certainly
those who are the causes of such events are punished by the law. For to
him who had power to prevent, attaches the blame of what happens. We
say to them, that causation is seen in doing, working, acting; but the
not preventing is in this respect inoperative. Further, causation
attaches to activity; as in the case of the shipbuilder in relation to
the origin of the vessel, and the builder in relation to the
construction of the house. But that which does not prevent is separated
from what takes place. Wherefore the effect will be accomplished;
because that which could have prevented neither acts nor prevents. For
what activity does that which prevents not exert? Now their assertion
is reduced to absurdity, if they shall say that the cause of the wound
is not the dart, but the shield, which did not prevent the dart from
passing through; and if they blame not the thief, but the man who did
not prevent the theft. Let them then say, that it was not Hector that
burned the ships of the Greeks, but Achilles; because, having the power
to prevent Hector, he did not prevent him; but out of anger (and it
depended on himself to be angry or not) did not keep back the fire, and
was a concurring cause. Now the devil, being possessed of free-will,
was able both to repent and to steal; and it was he who was the author
of the theft, not the Lord, who did not prevent him. But neither was
the gift hurtful, so as to require that prevention should intervene.
But if strict accuracy must be employed in dealing with them, let them
know, that that which does not prevent what we assert to have taken
place in the theft, is not a cause at all; but that what prevents is
involved in the accusation of being a cause. For he that protects with
a shield is the cause of him whom he protects not being wounded;
preventing him, as he does, from being wounded. For the demon of
Socrates was a cause, not by not preventing, but by exhorting, even if
(strictly speaking) he did not exhort. And neither praises nor
censures, neither rewards nor punishments, are right, when the soul has
not the power of inclination and disinclination, but evil is
involuntary. Whence he who prevents is a cause; while he who prevents
not judges justly the soul's choice. So in no respect is God the author
of evil. But since free choice and inclination originate sins, and a
mistaken judgment sometimes prevails, from which, since it is ignorance
and stupidity, we do not take pains to recede, punishments are rightly
inflicted. For to take fever is involuntary; but when one takes fever
through his own fault, from excess, we blame him. Inasmuch, then, as
evil is involuntary,--for no one prefers evil as evil; but induced by
the pleasure that is in it, and imagining it good, considers it
desirable;--such being the case, to free ourselves from ignorance, and
from evil and voluptuous choice, and above all, to withhold our assent
from those delusive phantasies, depends on ourselves. The devil is
called "thief and robber;" having mixed false prophets with the
prophets, as tares with the wheat. "All, then, that came before the
Lord, were thieves and robbers;" not absolutely all men, but all the
false prophets, and all who were not properly sent by Him. For the
false prophets possessed the prophetic name dishonestly, being
prophets, but prophets of the liar. For the Lord says, "Ye are of your
father the devil; and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a
murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there
is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own; for
he is a liar, and the father of it." 
But among the lies, the false prophets also told some true things. And
in reality they prophesied "in an ecstasy," as  the servants of
the apostate. And the Shepherd, the angel of repentance, says to
Hermas, of the false prophet: "For he speaks some truths. For the devil
fills him with his own spirit, if perchance he may be able to cast down
any one from what is right." All things, therefore, are dispensed from
heaven for good, "that by the Church may be made known the manifold
wisdom of God, according to the eternal foreknowledge,  which He
purposed in Christ."  Nothing withstands God: nothing opposes
Him: seeing He is Lord and omnipotent. Further, the counsels and
activities of those who have rebelled, being partial, proceed from a
bad disposition, as bodily diseases from a bad constitution, but are
guided by universal Providence to a salutary issue, even though the
cause be productive of disease. It is accordingly the greatest
achievement of divine Providence, not to allow the evil, which has
sprung from voluntary apostasy, to remain useless, and for no good, and
not to become in all respects injurious. For it is the work of the
divine wisdom, and excellence, and power, not alone to do good (for
this is, so to speak, the nature of God, as it is of fire to warm and
of light to illumine), but especially to ensure that what happens
through the evils hatched by any, may come to a good and useful issue,
and to use to advantage those things which appear to be evils, as also
the testimony which accrues from temptation.
There is then in philosophy, though stolen as the fire by Prometheus, a
slender spark, capable of being fanned into flame, a trace of wisdom
and an impulse from God. Well, be it so that "the thieves and robbers"
are the philosophers among the Greeks, who from the Hebrew prophets
before the coming of the Lord received fragments of the truth, not with
full knowledge, and claimed these as their own teachings, disguising
some points, treating others sophistically by their ingenuity, and
discovering other things, for perchance they had "the spirit of
perception."  Aristotle, too, assented to Scripture, and declared
sophistry to have stolen wisdom, as we intimated before. And the
apostle says, "Which things we speak, not in the words which man's
wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth."  For of the
prophets it is said, "We have all received of His fulness,"  that
is, of Christ's. So that the prophets are not thieves. "And my doctrine
is not Mine," saith the Lord, "but the Father's which sent me." And of
those who steal He says: "But he that speaketh of himself, seeketh his
own glory."  Such are the Greeks, "lovers of their own selves,
and boasters."  Scripture, when it speaks of these as wise, does
not brand those who are really wise, but those who are wise in
 John x. 8.
 Prov. ix. 3.
 John viii. 44.
 [The devil can quote Scripture. Hermas, p. 27, this volume. See, on this important chapter, Elucidation XIII., infra.]
 Clement reads prognosin for prothesin.
 Eph. iii. 10, 11.
 Ex. xxviii. 3.
 1 Cor. ii. 13.
 John i. 16.
 John vii. 16, 18.
 2 Tim. iii. 2.
Chapter XVIII.--He Illustrates the Apostle's Saying, "I Will Destroy the Wisdom of the Wise."
And of such it is said, "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise: I will
bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent." The apostle
accordingly adds, "Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the
disputer of this world?" setting in contradistinction to the scribes,
the disputers  of this world, the philosophers of the Gentiles.
"Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?"  which is
equivalent to, showed it to be foolish, and not true, as they thought.
And if you ask the cause of their seeming wisdom, he will say, "because
of the blindness of their heart;" since "in the wisdom of God," that
is, as proclaimed by the prophets, "the world knew not," in the wisdom
"which spake by the prophets," "Him,"  that is, God,--"it pleased
God by the foolishness of preaching"--what seemed to the Greeks
foolishness--"to save them that believe. For the Jews require signs,"
in order to faith; "and the Greeks seek after wisdom," plainly those
reasonings styled "irresistible," and those others, namely, syllogisms.
"But we preach Jesus Christ crucified; to the Jews a stumbling-block,"
because, though knowing prophecy, they did not believe the event: "to
the Greeks, foolishness;" for those who in their own estimation are
wise, consider it fabulous that the Son of God should speak by man and
that God should have a Son, and especially that that Son should have
suffered. Whence their preconceived idea inclines them to disbelieve.
For the advent of the Saviour did not make people foolish, and hard of
heart, and unbelieving, but made them understanding, amenable to
persuasion, and believing. But those that would not believe, by
separating themselves from the voluntary adherence of those who obeyed,
were proved to be without understanding, unbelievers and fools. "But to
them who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God,
and the wisdom of God." Should we not understand (as is better) the
words rendered, "Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?"
negatively: "God hath not made foolish the wisdom of the world?"--so
that the cause of their hardness of heart may not appear to have
proceeded from God, "making foolish the wisdom of the world." For on
all accounts, being wise, they incur greater blame in not believing the
proclamation. For the preference and choice of truth is voluntary. But
that declaration, "I will destroy the wisdom of the wise," declares Him
to have sent forth light, by bringing forth in opposition the despised
and contemned barbarian philosophy; as the lamp, when shone upon by the
sun, is said to be extinguished, on account of its not then exerting
the same power. All having been therefore called, those who are willing
to obey have been named  "called." For there is no
unrighteousness with God. Those of either race who have believed, are
"a peculiar people."  And in the Acts of the Apostles you will
find this, word for word, "Those then who received his word were
baptized;"  but those who would not obey kept themselves aloof.
To these prophecy says, "If ye be willing and hear me, ye shall eat the
good things of the land;"  proving that choice or refusal depends
on ourselves. The apostle designates the doctrine which is according to
the Lord, "the wisdom of God," in order to show that the true
philosophy has been communicated by the Son. Further, he, who has a
show of wisdom, has certain exhortations enjoined on him by the
apostle: "That ye put on the new man, which after God is renewed in
righteousness and true holiness. Wherefore, putting away lying, speak
every man truth. Neither give place to the devil. Let him that stole,
steal no more; but rather let him labour, working that which is good"
(and to work is to labour in seeking the truth; for it is accompanied
with rational well-doing), "that ye may have to give to him that has
need,"  both of worldly wealth and of divine wisdom. For he
wishes both that the word be taught, and that the money be put into the
bank, accurately tested, to accumulate interest. Whence he adds, "Let
no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth,"--that is "corrupt
communication" which proceeds out of conceit,--"but that which is good
for the use of edifying, that it may minister grace to the hearers."
And the word of the good God must needs be good. And how is it possible
that he who saves shall not be good?
 Or, "inquirers."
 1 Cor. i. 19, 20.
 1 Cor. i. 21-24; where the reading is Theon not Auton.
 [He thus expounds the Ecclesia.]
 Tit. ii. 14.
 Acts ii. 41.
 Isa. i. 19.
 Eph. iv. 24, 25, 27-29.
Chapter XIX.--That the Philosophers Have Attained to Some Portion of Truth.
Since, then, the Greeks are testified to have laid down some true
opinions, we may from this point take a glance at the testimonies.
Paul, in the Acts of the Apostles, is recorded to have said to the
Areopagites, "I perceive that ye are more than ordinarily religious.
For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with
the inscription, To The Unknown God. Whom therefore ye ignorantly
worship, Him declare I unto you. God, that made the world and all
things therein, seeing that He is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth
not in temples made with hands; neither is worshipped with men's hands,
as though He needed anything, seeing He giveth to all life, and breath,
and all things; and hath made of one blood all nations of men to dwell
on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before
appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; that they should seek
God, if haply they might feel after Him, and find Him; though He be not
far from every one of us: for in Him we live, and move, and have our
being; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we also are His
offspring."  Whence it is evident that the apostle, by availing
himself of poetical examples from the Phenomena of Aratus, approves of
what had been well spoken by the Greeks; and intimates that, by the
unknown God, God the Creator was in a roundabout way worshipped by the
Greeks; but that it was necessary by positive knowledge to apprehend
and learn Him by the Son. "Wherefore, then, I send thee to the
Gentiles," it is said, "to open their eyes, and to turn them from
darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God; that they may
receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them that are
sanctified by faith which is in Me."  Such, then, are the eyes of
the blind which are opened. The knowledge of the Father by the Son is
the comprehension of the "Greek circumlocution;"  and to turn
from the power of Satan is to change from sin, through which bondage
was produced. We do not, indeed, receive absolutely all philosophy, but
that of which Socrates  speaks in Plato. "For there are (as they
say) in the mysteries many bearers of the thyrsus, but few bacchanals;"
meaning, "that many are called, but few chosen." He accordingly plainly
adds: "These, in my opinion, are none else than those who have
philosophized right; to belong to whose number, I myself have left
nothing undone in life, as far as I could, but have endeavoured in
every way. Whether we have endeavoured rightly and achieved aught, we
shall know when we have gone there, if God will, a little afterwards."
Does he not then seem to declare from the Hebrew Scriptures the
righteous man's hope, through faith, after death? And in Demodocus
 (if that is really the work of Plato): "And do not imagine that
I call it philosophizing to spend life pottering about the arts, or
learning many things, but something different; since I, at least, would
consider this a disgrace." For he knew, I reckon, "that the knowledge
of many things does not educate the mind,"  according to
Heraclitus. And in the fifth book of the Republic,  he says,
"Shall we then call all these, and the others which study such things,
and those who apply themselves to the meaner arts, philosophers?' By no
means,' I said, but like philosophers.' And whom,' said he, do you call
true?' Those,' said I, who delight in the contemplation of truth. For
philosophy is not in geometry, with its postulates and hypotheses; nor
in music, which is conjectural; nor in astronomy, crammed full of
physical, fluid, and probable causes. But the knowledge of the good and
truth itself are requisite,--what is good being one thing, and the ways
to the good another.'"  So that he does not allow that the
curriculum of training suffices for the good, but co-operates in
rousing and training the soul to intellectual objects. Whether, then,
they say that the Greeks gave forth some utterances of the true
philosophy by accident, it is the accident of a divine administration
(for no one will, for the sake of the present argument with us, deify
chance); or by good fortune, good fortune is not unforeseen. Or were
one, on the other hand, to say that the Greeks possessed a natural
conception of these things, we know the one Creator of nature; just as
we also call righteousness natural; or that they had a common
intellect, let us reflect who is its father, and what righteousness is
in the mental economy. For were one to name "prediction,"  and
assign as its cause "combined utterance,"  he specifies forms of
prophecy. Further, others will have it that some truths were uttered by
the philosophers, in appearance.
The divine apostle writes accordingly respecting us: "For now we see as
through a glass;"  knowing ourselves in it by reflection, and
simultaneously contemplating, as we can, the efficient cause, from
that, which, in us, is divine. For it is said, "Having seen thy
brother, thou hast seen thy God:" methinks that now the Saviour God is
declared to us. But after the laying aside of the flesh, "face to
face,"--then definitely and comprehensively, when the heart becomes
pure. And by reflection and direct vision, those among the Greeks who
have philosophized accurately, see God. For such, through our weakness,
are our true views, as images are seen in the water, and as we see
things through pellucid and transparent bodies. Excellently therefore
Solomon says: "He who soweth righteousness, worketh faith."  "And
there are those who, sewing their own, make increase."  And
again: "Take care of the verdure on the plain, and thou shalt cut grass
and gather ripe hay, that thou mayest have sheep for clothing." 
You see how care must be taken for external clothing and for keeping.
"And thou shalt intelligently know the souls of thy flock."  "For
when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things
contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto
themselves; uncircumcision observing the precepts of the law," 
according to the apostle, both before the law and before the advent. As
if making comparison of those addicted to philosophy with those called
heretics,  the Word most clearly says: "Better is a friend that
is near, than a brother that dwelleth afar off."  "And he who
relies on falsehoods, feeds on the winds, and pursues winged birds."
 I do not think that philosophy directly declares the Word,
although in many instances philosophy attempts and persuasively teaches
us probable arguments; but it assails the sects. Accordingly it is
added: "For he hath forsaken the ways of his own vineyard, and wandered
in the tracks of his own husbandry." Such are the sects which deserted
the primitive Church.  Now he who has fallen into heresy passes
through an arid wilderness, abandoning the only true God, destitute of
God, seeking waterless water, reaching an uninhabited and thirsty land,
collecting sterility with his hands. And those destitute of prudence,
that is, those involved in heresies, "I enjoin," remarks Wisdom,
saying, "Touch sweetly stolen bread and the sweet water of theft;"
 the Scripture manifestly applying the terms bread and water to
nothing else but to those heresies, which employ bread and water in the
oblation, not according to the canon of the Church. For there are those
who celebrate the Eucharist with mere water. "But begone, stay not in
her place:" place is the synagogue, not the Church. He calls it by the
equivocal name, place. Then He subjoins: "For so shalt thou pass
through the water of another;" reckoning heretical baptism not proper
and true water. "And thou shalt pass over another's river," that rushes
along and sweeps down to the sea; into which he is cast who, having
diverged from the stability which is according to truth, rushes back
into the heathenish and tumultous waves of life.
 Acts xvii. 22-28.
 Acts xxvi. 17, 18.
 Viz., "The Unknown God." [Hereafter to be noted.]
 [Not in the original with Socrates, but a common adage:--
Multi thyrsigeri, pauci Bacchi.
The original Greek hexameter is given by Erasmus, in his Adagia (p.
650), with numerous equivalents, among which take this: Non omnes
episcopi qui mitram gerunt bicornem. He reminds us that Plato borrows
it in the Phoedo, and he quotes the parallel sayin of Herodes Atticus,
"I see a beard and a cloak, but as yet do not discover the
 There is no such utterance in the Demodocus. But in the Amatores, Basle Edition, p. 237, Plato says: "But it is not so, my friend: nor is it philosophizing to occupy oneself in the arts, nor lead a life of bustling, meddling activity, nor to learn many things; but it is something else. Since I, at least, would reckon this a reproach; and that those who devote themselves to the arts ought to be called mechanics."
 According to the emendations of Menagius: "hos ara e poluma theia goon ouchi didaskei."
 [Sect. xix. xx. p. 475.]
 Adopting the emendations, dei epistemes instead of di epistemes, and tagathon for tagathou, omitting hosper.
 1 Cor. xii. 12.
 Prov. xi. 21.
 Prov. xi. 24.
 Prov. xxvii. 25, 26.
 Prov. xxvii. 23.
 Rom. ii. 14, 15.
 [His ideas of the conditions of the Gnostics, Montanists, and other heretical sects who divided the primitive unity, is important as illustrating Irenaeus. Note his words, the primitive, etc.]
 Prov. xxvii. 10.
 Prov. ix. 12.
 [His ideas of the conditions of the Gnostics, Montanists, and other heretical sects who divided the primitive unity, is important as illustrating Irenaeus. Note his words, the primitive, etc.]
 Prov. ix. 17.
Chapter XX.--In What Respect Philosophy Contributes to the Comprehension of Divine Truth.
As many men drawing down the ship, cannot be called many causes, but
one cause consisting of many;--for each individual by himself is not
the cause of the ship being drawn, but along with the rest;--so also
philosophy, being the search for truth, contributes to the
comprehension of truth; not as being the cause of comprehension, but a
cause along with other things, and co-operator; perhaps also a joint
cause. And as the several virtues are causes of the happiness of one
individual; and as both the sun, and the fire, and the bath, and
clothing are of one getting warm: so while truth is one, many things
contribute to its investigation. But its discovery is by the Son. If
then we consider, virtue is, in power, one. But it is the case, that
when exhibited in some things, it is called prudence, in others
temperance, and in others manliness or righteousness. By the same
analogy, while truth is one, in geometry there is the truth of
geometry; in music, that of music; and in the right philosophy, there
will be Hellenic truth. But that is the only authentic truth,
unassailable, in which we are instructed by the Son of God. In the same
way we say, that the drachma being one and the same, when given to the
shipmaster, is called the fare; to the tax-gatherer, tax; to the
landlord, rent; to the teacher, fees; to the seller, an earnest. And
each, whether it be virtue or truth, called by the same name, is the
cause of its own peculiar effect alone; and from the blending of them
arises a happy life. For we are not made happy by names alone, when we
say that a good life is happiness, and that the man who is adorned in
his soul with virtue is happy. But if philosophy contributes remotely
to the discovery of truth, by reaching, by diverse essays, after the
knowledge which touches close on the truth, the knowledge possessed by
us, it aids him who aims at grasping it, in accordance with the Word,
to apprehend knowledge. But the Hellenic truth is distinct from that
held by us (although it has got the same name), both in respect of
extent of knowledge, certainly of demonstration, divine power, and the
like. For we are taught of God, being instructed in the truly "sacred
letters"  by the Son of God. Whence those, to whom we refer,
influence souls not in the way we do, but by different teaching. And
if, for the sake of those who are fond of fault-finding, we must draw a
distinction, by saying that philosophy is a concurrent and cooperating
cause of true apprehension, being the search for truth, then we shall
avow it to be a preparatory training for the enlightened man (tou
gnostikou); not assigning as the cause that which is but the
joint-cause; nor as the upholding cause, what is merely co-operative;
nor giving to philosophy the place of a sine qua non. Since almost all
of us, without training in arts and sciences, and the Hellenic
philosophy, and some even without learning at all, through the
influence of a philosophy divine and barbarous, and by power, have
through faith received the word concerning God, trained by
self-operating wisdom. But that which acts in conjunction with
something else, being of itself incapable of operating by itself, we
describe as co-operating and concausing, and say that it becomes a
cause only in virtue of its being a joint-cause, and receives the name
of cause only in respect of its concurring with something else, but
that it cannot by itself produce the right effect.
Although at one time philosophy justified the Greeks,  not
conducting them to that entire righteousness to which it is ascertained
to cooperate, as the first and second flight of steps help you in your
ascent to the upper room, and the grammarian helps the philosopher. Not
as if by its abstraction, the perfect Word would be rendered
incomplete, or truth perish; since also sight, and hearing, and the
voice contribute to truth, but it is the mind which is the appropriate
faculty for knowing it. But of those things which co-operate, some
contribute a greater amount of power; some, a less. Perspicuity
accordingly aids in the communication of truth, and logic in preventing
us from falling under the heresies by which we are assailed. But the
teaching, which is according to the Saviour, is complete in itself and
without defect, being "the power and wisdom of God;"  and the
Hellenic philosophy does not, by its approach, make the truth more
powerful; but rendering powerless the assault of sophistry against it,
and frustrating the treacherous plots laid against the truth, is said
to be the proper "fence and wall of the vineyard." And the truth which
is according to faith is as necessary for life as bread; while the
preparatory discipline is like sauce and sweetmeats. "At the end of the
dinner, the dessert is pleasant," according to the Theban Pindar. And
the Scripture has expressly said, "The innocent will become wiser by
understanding, and the wise will receive knowledge."  "And he
that speaketh of himself," saith the Lord, "seeketh his own glory; but
He that seeketh His glory that sent Him is true, and there is no
unrighteousness in Him."  On the other hand, therefore, he who
appropriates what belongs to the barbarians, and vaunts it is his own,
does wrong, increasing his own glory, and falsifying the truth. It is
such an one that is by Scripture called a "thief." It is therefore
said, "Son, be not a liar; for falsehood leads to theft." Nevertheless
the thief possesses really, what he has possessed himself of
dishonestly,  whether it be gold, or silver, or speech, or dogma.
The ideas, then, which they have stolen, and which are partially true,
they know by conjecture and necessary logical deduction: on becoming
disciples, therefore, they will know them with intelligent
 iera grauuata (2 Tim. iii. 15), translated in A. V. "sacred Scriptures:" also in contradistinction to the so-called sacred letters of the Egyptians, Chaldeans, etc.
 [Kaye, p. 426. A most valuable exposition of these passages on justification. See Elucidation XIV., infra.]
 1 Cor. i. 24.
 Prov. xxi. 11.
 John vii. 18.
 [This ingenious statement explains the author's constant assertion that truth, and to some extent saving truth, was to be found in Greek philosophy.]
Chapter XXI.--The Jewish Institutions and Laws of Far Higher Antiquity Than the Philosophy of the Greeks.
On the plagiarizing of the dogmas of the philosophers from the Hebrews,
we shall treat a little afterwards. But first, as due order demands, we
must now speak of the epoch of Moses, by which the philosophy of the
Hebrews will be demonstrated beyond all contradiction to be the most
ancient of all wisdom. This has been discussed with accuracy by Tatian
in his book To the Greeks, and by Cassian in the first book of his
Exegetics. Nevertheless our commentary demands that we too should run
over what has been said on the point. Apion, then, the grammarian,
surnamed Pleistonices, in the fourth book of The Egyptian Histories,
although of so hostile a disposition towards the Hebrews, being by race
an Egyptian, as to compose a work against the Jews, when referring to
Amosis king of the Egyptians, and his exploits, adduces, as a witness,
Ptolemy of Mendes. And his remarks are to the following effect: Amosis,
who lived in the time of the Argive Inachus, overthrew Athyria, as
Ptolemy of Mendes relates in his Chronology. Now this Ptolemy was a
priest; and setting forth the deeds of the Egyptian kings in three
entire books, he says, that the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, under
the conduct of Moses, took place while Amosis was king of Egypt. Whence
it is seen that Moses flourished in the time of Inachus. And of the
Hellenic states, the most ancient is the Argolic, I mean that which
took its rise from Inachus, as Dionysius of Halicarnassus teaches in
his Times. And younger by forty generations than it was Attica, founded
by Cecrops, who was an aboriginal of double race, as Tatian expressly
says; and Arcadia, founded by Pelasgus, younger too by nine
generations; and he, too, is said to have been an aboriginal. And more
recent than this last by fifty-two generations, was Pthiotis, founded
by Deucalion. And from the time of Inachus to the Trojan war twenty
generations or more are reckoned; let us say, four hundred years and
more. And if Ctesias says that the Assyrian power is many years older
than the Greek, the exodus of Moses from Egypt will appear to have
taken place in the forty-second year of the Assyrian empire,  in
the thirty-second year of the reign of Belochus, in the time of Amosis
the Egyptian, and of Inachus the Argive. And in Greece, in the time of
Phoroneus, who succeeded Inachus, the flood of Ogyges occurred; and
monarchy subsisted in Sicyon first in the person of AEgialeus, then of
Europs, then of Telches; in Crete, in the person of Cres. For Acusilaus
says that Phoroneus was the first man. Whence, too, the author of
Phoronis said that he was "the father of mortal men." Thence Plato in
the Timoeus, following Acusilaus, writes: "And wishing to draw them out
into a discussion respecting antiquities, he  said that he
ventured to speak of the most remote antiquities of this city 
respecting Phoroneus, called the first man, and Niobe, and what
happened after the deluge." And in the time of Phorbus lived Actaeus,
from whom is derived Actaia, Attica; and in the time of Triopas lived
Prometheus, and Atlas, and Epimetheus, and Cecrops of double race, and
Ino. And in the time of Crotopus occurred the burning of Phaethon, and
the deluge  of Deucalion; and in the time of Sthenelus, the reign
of Amphictyon, and the arrival of Danaus in the Peloponnesus; and
trader Dardanus happened the building of Dardania, whom, says Homer,
"First cloud-compelling Zeus begat,"--
and the transmigration from Crete into Phoenicia. And in the time of
Lynceus took place the abduction of Proserpine, and the dedication of
the sacred enclosure in Eleusis, and the husbandry of Triptolemus, and
the arrival of Cadmus in Thebes, and the reign of Minos. And in the
time of Proetus the war of Eumolpus with the Athenians took place; and
in the time of Acrisius, the removal of Pelops from Phrygia, the
arrival of Ion at Athens; and the second Cecrops appeared, and the
exploits of Perseus and Dionysus took place, and Orpheus and Musaeus
lived. And in the eighteenth year of the reign of Agamemnon, Troy was
taken, in the first year of the reign of Demophon the son of Theseus at
Athens, on the twelfth day of the month Thargelion, as Dionysius the
Argive says; but AEgias and Dercylus, in the third book, say that it
was on the eighth day of the last division of the month Panemus;
Hellanicus says that it was on the twelfth of the month Thargelion; and
some of the authors of the Attica say that it was on the eighth of the
last division of the month in the last year of Menestheus, at full
"It was midnight,"
says the author of the Little Iliad,
"And the moon shone clear."
Others say, it took place on the same day of Scirophorion. But Theseus,
the rival of Hercules, is older by a generation than the Trojan war.
Accordingly Tlepolemus, a son of Hercules, is mentioned by Homer, as
having served at Troy.
Moses, then, is shown to have preceded the deification of Dionysus six
hundred and four years, if he was deified in the thirty-second year of
the reign of Perseus, as Apollodorus says in his Chronology. From
Bacchus to Hercules and the chiefs that sailed with Jason in the ship
Argo, are comprised sixty-three years. AEsculapius and the Dioscuri
sailed with them, as Apollonius Rhodius testifies in his Argonautics.
And from the reign of Hercules, in Argos, to the deification of
Hercules and of AEsculapius, are comprised thirty-eight years,
according to Apollodorus the chronologist; from this to the deification
of Castor and Pollux, fifty-three years. And at this time Troy was
taken. And if we may believe the poet Hesiod, let us hear him:--
"Then to Jove, Maia, Atlas' daughter, bore renowned Hermes,
Herald of the immortals, having ascended the sacred couch.
And Semele, the daughter of Cadmus, too, bore an illustrious son,
Dionysus, the joy-inspiring, when she mingled with him in love." 
Cadmus, the father of Semele, came to Thebes in the time of Lynceus,
and was the inventor of the Greek letters. Triopas was a contemporary
of Isis, in the seventh generation from Inachus. And Isis, who is the
same as Io, is so called, it is said, from her going (ienai) roaming
over the whole earth. Her, Istrus, in his work on the migration of the
Egyptians, calls the daughter of Prometheus. Prometheus lived in the
time of Triopas, in the seventh generation after Moses. So that Moses
appears to have flourished even before the birth of men, according to
the chronology of the Greeks. Leon, who treated of the Egyptian
divinities, says that Isis by the Greeks was called Ceres, who lived in
the time of Lynceus, in the eleventh generation after Moses. And Apis
the king of Argos built Memphis, as Aristippus says in the first book
of the Arcadica. And Aristeas the Argive says that he was named
Serapis, and that it is he that the Egyptians worship. And Nymphodorus
of Amphipolis, in the third book of the Institutions of Asia, says that
the bull Apis, dead and laid in a coffin (soros), was deposited in the
temple of the god (daimonos) there worshipped, and thence was called
Soroapis, and afterwards Serapis by the custom of the natives. And Apis
is third after Inachus. Further, Latona lived in the time of Tityus.
"For he dragged Latona, the radiant consort of Zeus." Now Tityus was
contemporary with Tantalus. Rightly, therefore, the Boeotian Pindar
writes, "And in time was Apollo born;" and no wonder when he is found
along with Hercules, serving Admetus "for a long year." Zethus and
Amphion, the inventors of music, lived about the age of Cadmus. And
should one assert that Phemonoe was the first who sang oracles in verse
to Acrisius, let him know that twenty-seven years after Phemonoe, lived
Orpheus, and Musaeus, and Linus the teacher of Hercules. And Homer and
Hesiod are much more recent than the Trojan war; and after them the
legislators among the Greeks are far more recent, Lycurgus and Solon,
and the seven wise men, and Pherecydes of Syros, and Pythagoras the
great, who lived later, about the Olympiads, as we have shown. We have
also demonstrated Moses to be more ancient, not only than those called
poets and wise men among the Greeks, but than the most of their
deities. Nor he alone, but the Sibyl also is more ancient than Orpheus.
For it is said, that respecting her appellation and her oracular
utterances there are several accounts; that being a Phrygian, she was
called Artemis; and that on her arrival at Delphi, she sang--
"O Delphians, ministers of far-darting Apollo,
I come to declare the mind of AEgis-bearing Zeus,
Enraged as I am at my own brother Apollo."
There is another also, an Erythraean, called Herophile. These are
mentioned by Heraclides of Pontus in his work On Oracles. I pass over
the Egyptian Sibyl, and the Italian, who inhabited the Carmentale in
Rome, whose son was Evander, who built the temple of Pan in Rome,
called the Lupercal.
It is worth our while, having reached this point, to examine the dates
of the other prophets among the Hebrews who succeeded Moses. After the
close of Moses's life, Joshua succeeded to the leadership of the
people, and he, after warring for sixty-five years, rested in the good
land other five-and-twenty. As the book of Joshua relates, the above
mentioned man was the successor of Moses twenty-seven years. Then the
Hebrews having sinned, were delivered to Chusachar  king of
Mesopotamia for eight years, as the book of Judges mentions. But having
afterwards besought the Lord, they receive for leader Gothoniel, 
the younger brother of Caleb, of the tribe of Judah, who, having slain
the king of Mesopotamia, ruled over the people forty years in
succession. And having again sinned, they were delivered into the hands
of AEglom  king of the Moabites for eighteen years. But on their
repentance, Aod,  a man who had equal use of both hands, of the
tribe of Ephraim, was their leader for eighty years. It was he that
despatched AEglom. On the death of Aod, and on their sinning again,
they were delivered into the hand of Jabim  king of Canaan twenty
years. After him Deborah the wife of Lapidoth, of the tribe of Ephraim,
prophesied; and Ozias the son of Rhiesu was high priest. At her
instance Barak the son of Bener,  of the tribe of Naphtali,
commanding the army, having joined battle with Sisera, Jabim's
commander-in-chief, conquered him. And after that Deborah ruled,
judging the people forty years. On her death, the people having again
sinned, were delivered into the hands of the Midianites seven years.
After these events, Gideon, of the tribe of Manasseh, the son of Joas,
having fought with his three hundred men, and killed a hundred and
twenty thousand, ruled forty years; after whom the son of Ahimelech,
three years. He was succeeded by Boleas, the son of Bedan, the son of
Charran,  of the tribe of Ephraim, who ruled twenty-three years.
After whom, the people having sinned again, were delivered to the
Ammonites eighteen years; and on their repentance were commanded by
Jephtha the Gileadite, of the tribe of Manasseh; and he ruled six
years. After whom, Abatthan  of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Juda,
ruled seven years. Then Ebron  the Zebulonite, eight years. Then
Eglom of Ephraim, eight years. Some add to the seven years of Abatthan
the eight of Ebrom.  And after him, the people having again
transgressed, came under the power of the foreigners, the Philistines,
for forty years. But on their returning [to God], they were led by
Samson, of the tribe of Dan, who conquered the foreigners in battle. He
ruled twenty years. And after him, there being no governor, Eli the
priest judged the people for forty years. He was succeeded by Samuel
the prophet; contemporaneously with whom Saul reigned, who held sway
for twenty-seven years. He anointed David. Samuel died two years before
Saul, while Abimelech was high priest. He anointed Saul as king, who
was the first that bore regal sway over Israel after the judges; the
whole duration of whom, down to Saul, was four hundred and sixty-three
years and seven months.
Then in the first book of Kings there are twenty years of Saul, during
which he reigned after he was renovated. And after the death of Saul,
David the son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah, reigned next in Hebron,
forty years, as is contained in the second book of Kings. And Abiathar
the son of Abimelech, of the kindred of Eli, was high priest. In his
time Gad and Nathan prophesied. From Joshua the son of Nun, then, till
David received the kingdom, there intervene, according to some, four
hundred and fifty years. But, as the chronology set forth shows, five
hundred and twenty-three years and seven months are comprehended till
the death of David.
And after this Solomon the son of David reigned forty years. Under him
Nathan continued to prophesy, who also exhorted him respecting the
building of the temple. Achias of Shilo also prophesied. And both the
kings, David and Solomon, were prophets. And Sadoc the high priest was
the first who ministered in the temple which Solomon built, being the
eighth from Aaron, the first high priest. From Moses, then, to the age
of Solomon, as some say, are five hundred and ninety-five years, and as
others, five hundred and seventy-six.
And if you count, along with the four hundred and fifty years from
Joshua to David, the forty years of the rule of Moses, and the other
eighty years of Moses's life previous to the exodus of the Hebrews from
Egypt, you will make up the sum in all of six hundred and ten years.
But our chronology will run more correctly, if to the five hundred and
twenty-three years and seven months till the death of David, you add
the hundred and twenty years of Moses and the forty years of Solomon.
For you will make up in all, down to the death of Solomon, six hundred
and eighty-three years and seven months.
Hiram gave his daughter to Solomon about the time of the arrival of
Menelaus in Phoenicia, after the capture of Troy, as is said by
Menander of Pergamus, and Laetus in The Phoenicia. And after Solomon,
Roboam his son reigned for seventeen years; and Abimelech the son of
Sadoc was high priest. In his reign, the kingdom being divided,
Jeroboam, of the tribe of Ephraim, the servant of Solomon, reigned in
Samaria; and Achias the Shilonite continued to prophesy; also Samaeas
the son of Amame, and he who came from Judah to Jeroboam,  and
prophesied against the altar. After him his son Abijam, twenty-three
years; and likewise his son Asaman.  The last, in his old age,
was diseased in his feet; and in his reign prophesied Jehu the son of
After him Jehosaphat his son reigned twenty-five years.  In his
reign prophesied Elias the Thesbite, and Michaeas the son of Jebla, and
Abdias the son of Ananias. And in the time of Michaeas there was also
the false prophet Zedekias, the son of Chonaan. These were followed by
the reign of Joram the son of Jehosaphat, for eight years; during whose
time prophesied Elias; and after Elias, Elisaeus the son of Saphat. In
his reign the people in Samaria ate doves' dung and their own children.
The period of Jehosaphat extends from the close of the third book of
Kings to the fourth. And in the reign of Joram, Elias was translated,
and Elisaeus the son of Saphat commenced prophesying, and prophesied
for six years, being forty years old.
Then Ochozias reigned a year. In his time Elisaeus continued to
prophesy, and along with him Adadonaeus.  After him the mother of
Ozias,  Gotholia,  reigned eight  years, having slain
the children of her brother.  For she was of the family of Ahab.
But the sister of Ozias, Josabaea, stole Joas the son of Ozias, and
invested him afterwards with the kingdom. And in the time of this
Gotholia, Elisaeus was still prophesying. And after her reigned, as I
said before, Joash, rescued by Josabaea the wife of Jodae the high
priest, and lived in all forty years.
There are comprised, then, from Solomon to the death of Elisaeus the
prophet, as some say, one hundred and five years; according to others,
one hundred and two; and, as the chronology before us shows, from the
reign of Solomon an hundred and eighty-one.
Now from the Trojan war to the birth of Homer, according to
Philochorus, a hundred and eighty years elapsed; and he was posterior
to the Ionic migration. But Aristarchus, in the Archilochian Memoirs,
says that he lived during the Ionic migration, which took place a
hundred and twenty years after the siege of Troy. But Apollodorus
alleges it was an hundred and twenty years after the Ionic migration,
while Agesilaus son of Doryssaeus was king of the Lacedaemonians: so
that he brings Lycurgus the legislator, while still a young man, near
him. Euthymenes, in the Chronicles, says that he flourished
contemporaneously with Hesiod, in the time of Acastus, and was born in
Chios about the four hundredth year after the capture of Troy. And
Archimachus, in the third book of his Euboean History, is of this
opinion. So that both he and Hesiod were later than Elisaeus, the
prophet. And if you choose to follow the grammarian Crates, and say
that Homer was born about the time of the expedition of the Heraclidae,
eighty years after the taking of Troy, he will be found to be later
again than Solomon, in whose days occurred the arrival of Menelaus in
Phoenicia, as was said above. Eratosthenes says that Homer's age was
two hundred years after the capture of Troy. Further, Theopompus, in
the forty-third book of the Philippics, relates that Homer was born
five hundred years after the war at Troy. And Euphorion, in his book
about the Aleuades, maintains that he was born in the time of Gyges,
who began to reign in the eighteenth Olympiad, who, also he says, was
the first that was called tyrant (turannos). Sosibius Lacon, again, in
his Record of Dates, brings Homer down to the eighth year of the reign
of Charillus the son of Polydectus. Charillus reigned for sixty-four
years, after whom the son of Nicander reigned thirty-nine years. In his
thirty-fourth year it is said that the first Olympiad was instituted;
so that Homer was ninety years before the introduction of the Olympic
After Joas, Amasias his son reigned as his successor thirty-nine years.
He in like manner was succeeded by his son Ozias, who reigned for
fifty-two years, and died a leper. And in his time prophesied Amos, and
Isaiah his son,  and Hosea the son of Beeri, and Jonas the son of
Amathi, who was of Geth-chober, who preached to the Ninevites, and
passed through the whale's belly.
Then Jonathan the son of Ozias reigned for sixteen years. In his time
Esaias still prophesied, and Hosea, and Michaeas the Morasthite, and
Joel the son of Bethuel.
Next in succession was his son Ahaz, who reigned for sixteen years. In
his time, in the fifteenth year, Israel was carried away to Babylon.
And Salmanasar the king of the Assyrians carried away the people of
Samaria into the country of the Medes and to Babylon.
Again Ahaz was succeeded by Osee,  who reigned for eight years.
Then followed Hezekiah, for twenty-nine years. For his sanctity, when
he had approached his end, God, by Isaiah, allowed him to live for
other fifteen years, giving as a sign the going back of the sun. Up to
his times Esaias, Hosea, and Micah continued prophesying.
And these are said to have lived after the age of Lycurgus, the
legislator of the Lacedaemonians. For Dieuchidas, in the fourth book of
the Megarics, places the era of Lycurgus about the two hundred and
ninetieth year after the capture of Troy.
After Hezekiah, his son Manasses reigned for fifty-five years. Then his
son Amos for two years. After him reigned his son Josias, distinguished
for his observance of the law, for thirty-one years. He "laid the
carcases of men upon the carcases of the idols," as is written in the
book of Leviticus.  In his reign, in the eighteenth year, the
passover was celebrated, not having been kept from the days of Samuel
in the intervening period.  Then Chelkias the priest, the father
of the prophet Jeremiah, having fallen in with the book of the law,
that had been laid up in the temple, read it and died.  And in
his days Olda  prohesied, and Sophonias,  and Jeremiah. And
in the days of Jeremiah was Ananias the son of Azor,  the false
prophet. He  having disobeyed Jeremiah the prophet, was slain by
Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt at the river Euphrates, having encountered
the latter, who was marching on the Assyrians.
Josiah was succeeded by Jechoniah, called also Joachas,  his son,
who reigned three months and ten days. Necho king of Egypt bound him
and led him to Egypt, after making his brother Joachim king in his
stead, who continued his tributary for eleven years. After him his
namesake  Joakim reigned for three months. Then Zedekiah reigned
for eleven years; and up to his time Jeremiah continued to prophesy.
Along with him Ezekiel  the son of Buzi, and Urias  the son
of Samaeus, and Ambacum  prophesied. Here end the Hebrew kings.
There are then from the birth of Moses till this captivity nine hundred
and seventy-two years; but according to strict chronological accuracy,
one thousand and eighty-five, six months, ten days. From the reign of
David to the captivity by the Chaldeans, four hundred and fifty-two
years and six months; but as the accuracy we have observed in reference
to dates makes out, four hundred and eighty-two and six months ten
And in the twelfth year of the reign of Zedekiah, forty years before
the supremacy of the Persians, Nebuchodonosor made war against the
Phoenicians and the Jews, as Berosus asserts in his Chaldaean
Histories. And Joabas,  writing about the Assyrians, acknowledges
that he had received the history from Berosus, and testifies to his
accuracy. Nebuchodonosor, therefore, having put out the eyes of
Zedekiah, took him away to Babylon, and transported the whole people
(the captivity lasted seventy years), with the exception of a few who
fled to Egypt.
Jeremiah and Ambacum were still prophesying in the time of Zedekiah. In
the fifth year of his reign Ezekiel prophesied at Babylon; after him
Nahum, then Daniel. After him, again, Haggai and Zechariah prophesied
in the time of Darius the First for two years; and then the angel among
the twelve.  After Haggai and Zechariah, Nehemiah, the chief
cup-bearer of Artaxerxes, the son of Acheli the Israelite, built the
city of Jerusalem and restored the temple. During the captivity lived
Esther and Mordecai, whose book is still extant, as also that of the
Maccabees. During this captivity Mishael, Ananias, and Azarias,
refusing to worship the image, and being thrown into a furnace of fire,
were saved by the appearance of an angel. At that time, on account of
the serpent,  Daniel was thrown into the den of lions; but being
preserved through the providence of God by Ambacub, he is restored on
the seventh day. At this period, too, occurred the sign of Jona; and
Tobias, through the assistance of the angel Raphael, married Sarah, the
demon having killed her seven first suitors; and after the marriage of
Tobias, his father Tobit recovered his sight. At that time Zorobabel,
having by his wisdom overcome his opponents, and obtained leave from
Darius for the rebuilding of Jerusalem, returned with Esdras to his
native land; and by him the redemption of the people and the revisal
and restoration of the inspired oracles were effected; and the passover
of deliverance celebrated, and marriage with aliens dissolved.
Cyrus had, by proclamation, previously enjoined the restoration of the
Hebrews. And his promise being accomplished in the time of Darius, the
feast of the dedication was held, as also the feast of tabernacles.
There were in all, taking in the duration of the captivity down to the
restoration of the people, from the birth of Moses, one thousand one
hundred and fifty-five years, six months, and ten days; and from the
reign of David, according to some, four hundred and fifty-two; more
correctly, five hundred and seventy-two years, six months, and ten
From the captivity at Babylon, which took place in the time of Jeremiah
the prophet, was fulfilled what was spoken by Daniel the prophet as
follows: "Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, and upon thy
holy city, to finish the transgression, and to seal sins, and to wipe
out and make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting
righteousness, and to seal the vision and the prophet, and to anoint
the Holy of Holies. Know therefore, and understand, that from the going
forth of the word commanding an answer to be given, and Jerusalem to be
built, to Christ the Prince, are seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; and
the street shall be again built, and the wall; and the times shall be
expended. And after the sixty-two weeks the anointing shall be
overthrown, and judgment shall not be in him; and he shall destroy the
city and the sanctuary along with the coming Prince. And they shall be
destroyed in a flood, and to the end of the war shall be cut off by
desolations. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week;
and in the middle of the week the sacrifice and oblation shall be taken
away; and in the holy place shall be the abomination of desolations,
and until the consummation of time shall the consummation be assigned
for desolation. And in the midst of the week shall he make the incense
of sacrifice cease, and of the wing of destruction, even till the
consummation, like the destruction of the oblation."  That the
temple accordingly was built in seven weeks, is evident; for it is
written in Esdras. And thus Christ became King of the Jews, reigning in
Jerusalem in the fulfilment of the seven weeks. And in the sixty and
two weeks the whole of Judaea was quiet, and without wars. And Christ
our Lord, "the Holy of Holies," having come and fulfilled the vision
and the prophecy, was anointed in His flesh by the Holy Spirit of His
Father. In those "sixty and two weeks," as the prophet said, and "in
the one week," was He Lord. The half of the week Nero held sway, and in
the holy city Jerusalem placed the abomination; and in the half of the
week he was taken away, and Otho, and Galba, and Vitellius. And
Vespasian rose to the supreme power, and destroyed Jerusalem, and
desolated the holy place. And that such are the facts of the case, is
clear to him that is able to understand, as the prophet said.
On the completion, then, of the eleventh year, in the beginning of the
following, in the reign of Joachim, occurred the carrying away captive
to Babylon by Nabuchodonosor the king, in the seventh year of his reign
over the Assyrians, in the second year of the reign of Vaphres over the
Egyptians, in the archonship of Philip at Athens, in the first year of
the forty-eighth Olympiad. The captivity lasted for seventy years, and
ended in the second year of Darius Hystaspes, who had become king of
the Persians, Assyrians, and Egyptians; in whose reign, as I said
above, Haggai and Zechariah and the angel of the twelve prophesied. And
the high priest was Joshua the son of Josedec. And in the second year
of the reign of Darius, who, Herodotus says, destroyed the power of the
Magi, Zorobabel the son of Salathiel was despatched to raise and adorn
the temple at Jerusalem.
The times of the Persians are accordingly summed up thus: Cyrus reigned
thirty years; Cambyses, nineteen; Darius, forty-six; Xerxes,
twenty-six; Artaxerxes, forty-one; Darius, eight; Artaxerxes,
forty-two; Ochus or Arses, three. The sum total of the years of the
Persian monarchy is two hundred and thirty-five years.
Alexander of Macedon, having despatched this Darius, during this
period, began to reign. Similarly, therefore, the times of the
Macedonian kings are thus computed: Alexander, eighteen years; Ptolemy
the son of Lagus, forty years; Ptolemy Philadelphus, twenty-seven
years; then Euergetes, five-and-twenty years; then Philopator,
seventeen years; then Epiphanes, four-and-twenty years; he was
succeeded by Philometer, who reigned five-and-thirty years; after him
Physcon, twenty-nine years; then Lathurus, thirty-six years; then he
that was surnamed Dionysus, twenty-nine years; and last Cleopatra
reigned twenty-two years. And after her was the reign of the
Cappadocians for eighteen days.
Accordingly the period embraced by the Macedonian kings is, in all,
three hundred and twelve years and eighteen days.
Therefore those who prophesied in the time of Darius Hystaspes, about
the second year of his reign,--Haggai, and Zechariah, and the angel of
the twelve, who prophesied about the first year of the forty-eighth
Olympiad,--are demonstrated to be older than Pythagoras, who is said to
have lived in the sixty-second Olympiad, and than Thales, the oldest of
the wise men of the Greeks, who lived about the fiftieth Olympiad.
Those wise men that are classed with Thales were then contemporaneous,
as Andron says in the Tripos. For Heraclitus being posterior to
Pythagoras, mentions him in his book. Whence indisputably the first
Olympiad, which was demonstrated to be four hundred and seven years
later than the Trojan war, is found to be prior to the age of the
above-mentioned prophets, together with those called the seven wise
men. Accordingly it is easy to perceive that Solomon, who lived in the
time of Menelaus (who was during the Trojan war), was earlier by many
years than the wise men among the Greeks. And how many years Moses
preceded him we showed, in what we said above. And Alexander, surnamed
Polyhistor, in his work on the Jews, has transcribed some letters of
Solomon to Vaphres king of Egypt, and to the king of the Phoenicians at
Tyre, and theirs to Solomon; in which it is shown that Vaphres sent
eighty thousand Egyptian men to him for the building of the temple, and
the other as many, along with a Tyrian artificer, the son of a Jewish
mother, of the tribe of Dan,  as is there written, of the name of
Hyperon.  Further, Onomacritus the Athenian, who is said to have
been the author of the poems ascribed to Orpheus, is ascertained to
have lived in the reign of the Pisistratidae, about the fiftieth
Olympiad. And Orpheus, who sailed with Hercules, was the pupil of
Musaeus. Amphion precedes the Trojan war by two generations. And
Demodocus and Phemius were posterior to the capture of Troy; for they
were famed for playing on the lyre, the former among the Phaeacians,
and the latter among the suitors. And the Oracles ascribed to Musaeus
are said to be the production of Onomacritus, and the Crateres of
Orpheus the production of Zopyrus of Heraclea, and The Descent to Hades
that of Prodicus of Samos. Ion of Chios relates in the Triagmi, 
that Pythagoras ascribed certain works [of his own] to Orpheus.
Epigenes, in his book respecting The Poetry attributed to Orpheus, says
that The Descent to Hades and the Sacred Discourse were the production
of Cecrops the Pythagorean; and the Peplus and the Physics of
Brontinus. Some also make Terpander out ancient. Hellanicus,
accordingly, relates that he lived in the time of Midas: but Phanias,
who places Lesches the Lesbian before Terpander, makes Terpander
younger than Archilochus, and relates that Lesches contended with
Arctinus, and gained the victory. Xanthus the Lydian says that he lived
about the eighteenth Olympiad; as also Dionysius says that Thasus was
built about the fifteenth Olympiad: so that it is clear that
Archilochus  was already known after the twentieth Olympiad. He
accordingly relates the destruction of Magnetes as having recently
taken place. Simonides is assigned to the time of Archilochus. Callinus
is not much older; for Archilochus refers to Magnetes as destroyed,
while the latter refers to it as flourishing. Eumelus of Corinth being
older, is said to have met Archias, who founded Syracuse.
We were induced to mention these things, because the poets of the epic
cycle are placed amongst those of most remote antiquity. Already, too,
among the Greeks, many diviners are said to have made their appearance,
as the Bacides, one a Boeotian, the other an Arcadian, who uttered many
predictions to many. By the counsel of Amphiletus the Athenian, 
who showed the time for the onset, Pisistratus, too, strengthened his
government. For we may pass over in silence Cometes of Crete, Cinyras
of Cyprus, Admetus the Thessalian, Aristaeas the Cyrenian, Amphiaraus
the Athenian, Timoxeus  the Corcyraean, Demaenetus the Phocian,
Epigenes the Thespian, Nicias the Carystian, Aristo the Thessalian,
Dionysius the Carthaginian, Cleophon the Corinthian, Hippo the daughter
of Chiro, and Boeo, and Manto, and the host of Sibyls, the Samian, the
Colophonian, the Cumaean, the Erythraean, the Pythian,  the
Taraxandrian, the Macetian, the Thessalian, and the Thesprotian. And
Calchas again, and Mopsus, who lived during the Trojan war. Mopsus,
however, was older, having sailed along with the Argonants. And it is
said that Battus the Cyrenian composed what is called the Divination of
Mopsus. Dorotheus in the first Pandect relates that Mopsus was the
disciple of Alcyon and Corone. And Pythagoras the Great always applied
his mind to prognostication, and Abaris the Hyperborean, and Aristaeas
the Proconnesian, and Epimenides the Cretan, who came to Sparta, and
Zoroaster the Mede, and Empedocles of Agrigentum, and Phormion the
Lacedaemonian; Polyaratus, too, of Thasus, and Empedotimus of Syracuse;
and in addition to these, Socrates the Athenian in particular. "For,"
he says in the Theages, "I am attended by a supernatural intimation,
which has been assigned me from a child by divine appointment. This is
a voice which, when it comes, prevents what I am about to do, but
exhorts never."  And Execestus, the tyrant of the Phocians, wore
two enchanted rings, and by the sound which they uttered one against
the other determined the proper times for actions. But he died,
nevertheless, treacherously murdered, although warned beforehand by the
sound, as Aristotle says in the Polity of the Phocians.
Of those, too, who at one time lived as men among the Egyptians, but
were constituted gods by human opinion, were Hermes the Theban, and
Asclepius of Memphis; Tireseus and Manto, again, at Thebes, as
Euripides says. Helenus, too, and Laocooen, and OEnone, and Crenus in
Ilium. For Crenus, one of the Heraclidae, is said to have been a noted
prophet. Another was Jamus in Elis, from whom came the Jamidae; and
Polyidus at Argos and Megara, who is mentioned by the tragedy. Why
enumerate Telemus, who, being a prophet of the Cyclops, predicted to
Polyphemus the events of Ulysses' wandering; or Onomacritus at Athens;
or Amphiaraus, who campaigned with the seven at Thebes, and is reported
to be a generation older than the capture of Troy; or Theoclymenus in
Cephalonia, or Telmisus in Caria, or Galeus in Sicily?
There are others, too, besides these: Idmon, who was with the
Argonauts, Phemonoe of Delphi, Mopsus the son of Apollo and Manto in
Pamphylia, and Amphilochus the son of Amphiaraus in Cilicia, Alcmaeon
among the Acarnanians, Anias in Delos, Aristander of Telmessus, who was
along with Alexander. Philochorus also relates in the first book of the
work, On Divination, that Orpheus was a seer. And Theopompus, and
Ephorus, and Timaeus, write of a seer called Orthagoras; as the Samian
Pythocles in the fourth book of The Italics writes of Caius Julius
But some of these "thieves and robbers," as the Scripture says,
predicted for the most part from observation and probabilities, as
physicians and soothsayers judge from natural signs; and others were
excited by demons, or were disturbed by waters, and fumigations, and
air of a peculiar kind. But among the Hebrews the prophets were moved
by the power and inspiration of God. Before the law, Adam spoke
prophetically in respect to the woman, and the naming of the creatures;
Noah preached repentance;  Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob gave many
clear utterances respecting future and present things. Contemporaneous
with the law, Moses and Aaron; and after these prophesied Jesus the son
of Nave, Samuel, Gad, Nathan, Achias, Samaeas, Jehu, Elias, Michaeas,
Abdiu, Elisaeus, Abbadonai, Amos, Esaias, Osee, Jonas, Joel, Jeremias,
Sophonias the son of Buzi, Ezekiel, Urias, Ambacum, Naum, Daniel,
Misael, who wrote the syllogisms, Aggai, Zacharias, and the angel among
the twelve. These are, in all, five-and-thirty prophets. And of women
(for these too prophesied), Sara, and Rebecca, and Mariam, and Debbora,
and Olda, i.e., Huldah.
Then within the same period John prophesied till the baptism of
salvation;  and after the birth of Christ, Anna and Simeon.
 For Zacaharias, John's father, is said in the Gospels to have
prophesied before his son. Let us then draw up the chronology of the
Greeks from Moses.
From the birth of Moses to the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, eighty
years; and the period down to his death, other forty years. The exodus
took place in the time of Inachus, before the wandering of Sothis,
 Moses having gone forth from Egypt three hundred and forty-five
years before. From the rule of Moses, and from Inachus to the flood of
Deucalion, I mean the second inundation, and to the conflagration of
Phaethon, which events happened in the time of Crotopus, forty
generations are enumerated (three generations being reckoned for a
century). From the flood to the conflagration of Ida, and the discovery
of iron, and the Idaean Dactyls, are seventy-three years, according to
Thrasyllus; and from the conflagration of Ida to the rape of Ganymede,
sixty-five years. From this to the expedition of Perseus, when Glaucus
established the Isthmian games in honour of Melicerta, fifteen years;
and from the expedition of Perseus to the building of Troy, thirty-four
years. From this to the voyage of the Argo, sixty-four years. From this
to Theseus and the Minotaur, thirty-two years; then to the seven at
Thebes, ten years. And to the Olympic contest, which Hercules
instituted in honour of Pelops, three years; and to the expedition of
the Amazons against Athens, and the rape of Helen by Theseus, nine
years. From this to the deification of Hercules, eleven years; then to
the rape of Helen by Alexander, four years. From the taking of Troy to
the descent of AEneas and the founding of Lavinium, ten years; and to
the government of Ascanius, eight years; and to the descent of the
Heraclidae, sixty-one years; and to the Olympiad of Iphitus, three
hundred and thirty-eight years. Eratosthenes thus sets down the dates:
"From the capture of Troy to the descent of the Heraclidae, eighty
years. From this to the founding of Ionia, sixty years; and the period
following to the protectorate of Lycurgus, a hundred and fifty-nine
years; and to the first year of the first Olympiad, a hundred and eight
years. From which Olympiad to the invasion of Xerxes, two hundred and
ninety-seven years; from which to the beginning of the Peloponnesian
war, forty-eight years; and to its close, and the defeat of the
Athenians, twenty-seven years; and to the battle at Leuctra,
thirty-four years; after which to the death of Philip, thirty-five
years. And after this to the decease of Alexander, twelve years."
Again, from the first Olympiad, some say, to the building of Rome, are
comprehended twenty-four years; and after this to the expulsion of the
kings,  when consuls were created, about two hundred and
forty-three years. And from the taking of Babylon to the death of
Alexander, a hundred and eighty-six years. From this to the victory of
Augustus, when Antony killed himself at Alexandria, two hundred and
ninety-four years, when Augustus was made consul for the fourth time.
And from this time to the games which Domitian instituted at Rome, are
a hundred and fourteen years; and from the first games to the death of
Commodus, a hundred and eleven years.
There are some that from Cecrops to Alexander of Macedon reckon a
thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight years; and from Demophon, a
thousand two hundred and fifty; and from the taking of Troy to the
expedition of the Heraclidae, a hundred and twenty or a hundred and
eighty years. From this to the archonship of Evaenetus at Athens, in
whose time Alexander is said to have marched into Asia, according to
Phanias, are seven hundred and fifty years; according to Ephorus, seven
hundred and thirty-five; according to Timaeus and Clitarchus, eight
hundred and twenty; according to Eratosthenes, seven hundred and
seventy-four. As also Duris, from the taking of Troy to the march of
Alexander into Asia, a thousand years; and from that to the archonship
of Hegesias, in whose time Alexander died eleven years. From this date
to the reign of Germanicus Claudius Caesar, three hundred and
sixty-five years. From which time the years summed up to the death of
Commodus are manifest.
After the Grecian period, and in accordance with the dates, as computed
by the barbarians, very large intervals are to be assigned.
From Adam to the deluge are comprised two thousand one hundred and
forty-eight years, four days. From Shem to Abraham, a thousand two
hundred and fifty years. From Isaac to the division of the land, six
hundred and sixteen years. Then from the judges to Samuel, four hundred
and sixty-three years, seven months. And after the judges there were
five hundred and seventy-two years, six months, ten days of kings.
After which periods, there were two hundred and thirty-five years of
the Persian monarchy. Then of the Macedonian, till the death of Antony,
three hundred and twelve years and eighteen days. After which time, the
empire of the Romans, till the death of Commodus, lasted for two
hundred and twenty-two years.
Then, from the seventy years' captivity, and the restoration of the
people into their own land to the captivity in the time of Vespasian,
are comprised four hundred and ten years. Finally, from Vespasian to
the death of Commodus, there are ascertained to be one hundred and
twenty-one years, six months, and twenty-four days.
Demetrius, in his book, On the Kings in Judaea, says that the tribes of
Juda, Benjamin, and Levi were not taken captive by Sennacherim; but
that there were from this captivity to the last, which Nabuchodonosor
made out of Jerusalem, a hundred and twenty-eight years and six months;
and from the time that the ten tribes were carried captive from Samaria
till Ptolemy the Fourth, were five hundred and seventy-three years,
nine months; and from the time that the captivity from Jerusalem took
place, three hundred and thirty-eight years and three months.
Philo himself set down the kings differently from Demetrius.
Besides, Eupolemus, in a similar work, says that all the years from
Adam to the fifth year of Ptolemy Demetrius, who reigned twelve years
in Egypt, when added, amount to five thousand a hundred and forty-nine;
and from the time that Moses brought out the Jews from Egypt to the
above-mentioned date, there are, in all, two thousand five hundred and
eighty years. And from this time till the consulship in Rome of Caius
Domitian and Casian, a hundred and twenty years are computed.
Euphorus and many other historians say that there are seventy-five
nations and tongues, in consequence of hearing the statement made by
Moses: "All the souls that sprang from Jacob, which went down into
Egypt, were seventy-five."  According to the true reckoning,
there appear to be seventy-two generic dialects, as our Scriptures hand
down. The rest of the vulgar tongues are formed by the blending of two,
or three, or more dialects. A dialect is a mode of speech which
exhibits a character peculiar to a locality, or a mode of speech which
exhibits a character peculiar or common to a race. The Greeks say, that
among them are five dialects--the Attic, Ionic, Doric, AEolic, and the
fifth the Common; and that the languages of the barbarians, which are
innumerable, are not called dialects, but tongues.
Plato attributes a dialect also to the gods, forming this conjecture
mainly from dreams and oracles, and especially from demoniacs, who do
not speak their own language or dialect, but that of the demons who
have taken possession of them. He thinks also that the irrational
creatures have dialects, which those that belong to the same genus
understand.  Accordingly, when an elephant falls into the mud and
bellows out any other one that is at hand, on seeing what has happened,
shortly turns, and brings with him a herd of elephants, and saves the
one that has fallen in. It is said also in Libya, that a scorpion, if
it does not succeed in stinging a man, goes away and returns with
several more; and that, hanging on one to the other like a chain they
make in this way the attempt to succeed in their cunning design.
The irrational creatures do not make use of an obscure intimation, or
hint their meaning by assuming a particular attitude, but, as I think,
by a dialect of their own.  And some others say, that if a fish
which has been taken escape by breaking the line, no fish of the same
kind will be caught in the same place that day. But the first and
generic barbarous dialects have terms by nature, since also men confess
that prayers uttered in a barbarian tongue are more powerful. And
Plato, in the Cratylus, when wishing to interpret pur (fire), says that
it is a barbaric term. He testifies, accordingly, that the Phrygians
use this term with a slight deviation.
And nothing, in my opinion, after these details, need stand in the way
of stating the periods of the Roman emperors, in order to the
demonstration of the Saviour's birth. Augustus, forty-three years;
Tiberius, twenty-two years; Caius, four years; Claudius, fourteen
years; Nero, fourteen years; Galba, one year; Vespasian, ten years;
Titus, three years; Domitian, fifteen years; Nerva, one year; Trajan,
nineteen years; Adrian, twenty-one years; Antoninus, twenty-one years;
likewise again, Antoninus and Commodus, thirty-two. In all, from
Augustus to Commodus, are two hundred and twenty-two years; and from
Adam to the death of Commodus, five thousand seven hundred and
eighty-four years, two months, twelve days.
Some set down the dates of the Roman emperors thus:--
Caius Julius Caesar, three years, four months, five days; after him
Augustus reigned forty-six years, four months, one day. Then Tiberius,
twenty-six years, six months, nineteen days. He was succeeded by Caius
Caesar, who reigned three years, ten months, eight days; and he by
Claudius for thirteen years, eight months, twenty-eight days. Nero
reigned thirteen years, eight months, twenty-eight days; Galba, seven
months and six days; Otho, five months, one day; Vitellius, seven
months, one day; Vespasian, eleven years, eleven months, twenty-two
days; Titus, two years, two months; Domitian, fifteen years, eight
months, five days; Nerva, one year, four months, ten days; Trajan,
nineteen years, seven months, ten days; Adrian, twenty years, ten
months, twenty-eight days. Antoninus, twenty-two years, three months,
and seven days; Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, nineteen years, eleven days;
Commodus, twelve years, nine months, fourteen days.
From Julius Caesar, therefore, to the death of Commodus, are two
hundred and thirty-six years, six months. And the whole from Romulus,
who founded Rome, till the death of Commodus, amounts to nine hundred
and fifty-three years, six months. And our Lord was born in the
twenty-eighth year, when first the census was ordered to be taken in
the reign of Augustus. And to prove that this is true, it is written in
the Gospel by Luke as follows: "And in the fifteenth year, in the reign
of Tiberius Caesar, the word of the Lord came to John, the son of
Zacharias." And again in the same book: "And Jesus was coming to His
baptism, being about thirty years old,"  and so on. And that it
was necessary for Him to preach only a year, this also is written:
 "He hath sent Me to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord."
This both the prophet spake, and the Gospel. Accordingly, in fifteen
years of Tiberius and fifteen years of Augustus; so were completed the
thirty years till the time He suffered. And from the time that He
suffered till the destruction of Jerusalem are forty-two years and
three months; and from the destruction of Jerusalem to the death of
Commodus, a hundred and twenty-eight years, ten months, and three days.
From the birth of Christ, therefore, to the death of Commodus are, in
all, a hundred and ninety-four years, one month, thirteen days. And
there are those who have determined not only the year of our Lord's
birth, but also the day; and they say that it took place in the
twenty-eighth year of Augustus, and in the twenty-fifth day of Pachon.
And the followers of Basilides hold the day of his baptism as a
festival, spending the night before in readings.
And they say that it was the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar, the
fifteenth day of the month Tubi; and some that it was the eleventh of
the same month. And treating of His passion, with very great accuracy,
some say that it took place in the sixteenth year of Tiberius, on the
twenty-fifth of Phamenoth; and others the twenty-fifth of Pharmuthi and
others say that on the nineteenth of Pharmuthi the Saviour suffered.
Further, others say that He was born on the twenty-fourth or
twenty-fifth of Pharmuthi. 
We have still to add to our chronology the following,--I mean the days
which Daniel indicates from the desolation of Jerusalem, the seven
years and seven months of the reign of Vespasian. For the two years are
added to the seventeen months and eighteen days of Otho, and Galba, and
Vitellius; and the result is three years and six months, which is "the
half of the week," as Daniel the prophet said. For he said that there
were two thousand three hundred days from the time that the abomination
of Nero stood in the holy city, till its destruction. For thus the
declaration, which is subjoined, shows: "How long shall be the vision,
the sacrifice taken away, the abomination of desolation, which is
given, and the power and the holy place shall be trodden under foot?
And he said to him, Till the evening and morning, two thousand three
hundred days, and the holy place shall be taken away." 
These two thousand three hundred days, then, make six years four
months, during the half of which Nero held sway, and it was half a
week; and for a half, Vespasian with Otho, Galba, and Vitellius
reigned. And on this account Daniel says, "Blessed is he that cometh to
the thousand three hundred and thirty-five days."  For up to
these days was war, and after them it ceased. And this number is
demonstrated from a subsequent chapter, which is as follows: "And from
the time of the change of continuation, and of the giving of the
abomination of desolation, there shall be a thousand two hundred and
ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand
three hundred and thirty-five days." 
Flavius Josephus the Jew, who composed the history of the Jews,
computing the periods, says that from Moses to David were five hundred
and eighty-five years; from David to the second year of Vespasian, a
thousand one hundred and seventy-nine; then from that to the tenth year
of Antoninus, seventy-seven. So that from Moses to the tenth year of
Antoninus there are, in all, two thousand one hundred and thirty-three
Of others, counting from Inachus and Moses to the death of Commodus,
some say there were three thousand one hundred and forty-two years; and
others, two thousand eight hundred and thirty-one years.
And in the Gospel according to Matthew, the genealogy which begins with
Abraham is continued down to Mary the mother of the Lord. "For," it is
said,  "from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from
David to the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and
from the carrying away into Babylon till Christ are likewise other
fourteen generations,"--three mystic intervals completed in six weeks.
 The deficiencies of the text in this place have been supplied from Eusebius's Chronicles.
 i.e., Solon, in his conversation with the Egyptian priests.
 polei, "city," is not in Plato.
 [Theog., 938.]
 Chushan-rishathaim; Judg. iii. 8.
 Abinoam; Judg. iv. 6.
 Sic. Tholeas may be the right reading instead of Boleas. But Judg. x. 1 says Tola, the son of Puah, the son of Dodo.
 Ibzan, A. V., Judg. xii. 8; Abaissan, Septuagant. According to Judg. xii. 11, Elon the Zebulonite succeeded Ibzan.
 Not mentioned in Scripture.
 See 1 Kings xiii. 1, 2. The text has epi Roboam, which, if retained, must be translated "in the reign of Roboam." But Jeroboam was probably the original reading.
 So Lowth corrects the text, which has five.
 Supposed to be "son of Oded" or "Adad," i.e., Azarias.
 i.e., of Ochozias.
 She was slain in the seventh year of her reign.
 Not of her brother, but of her son Ahaziah, all of whom she slew except Joash.
 Clement is wrong in asserting that Amos the prophet was the father of Isaiah. The names are written differently in Hebrew, though the same in Greek.
 By a strange mistake Hosea king of Israel is reckoned among the kings of Judah.
 Lev. xxvi. 30.
 2 Kings xxiii. 22.
 2 Kings xxii. 8.
 o Iosiou, the reading of the text, is probably corrupt.
 o kai Ioachas, instead of which the text has kai Ioachas.
 The names, however, were not the same. The name of the latter was Jehoiachin. The former in Hebrew was written yhvyqym, the latter yhvykyn. By copyists they were often confounded, as here by Clement.
 Lowth suplies Iezekiel, which is wanting in the text.
 He was a contemporary of Jeremiah, but was killed before the time of Zedekiah by Joachin. Jer. xxvi. 20.
 Malachi, my angel or messenger. [Again, p. 331, infra.]
 On account of killing the serpent, as is related in the apocryphal book, "Bel and the Dragon, or Serpent."
 Dan. ix. 24-27. [Speaker's Commentary, Excursus, ad locum.]
 The text has David.
 Hiram or Huram was his name (1 Kings vii. 13, 40). Clement seems to have mistaken the words huper on occuring in the epistle referred to for a proper name.
 Such, according to Harpocration, was the title of this work. In the text it is called Trigrammoi. Suidas calls it Triasmoi.
 The passage seems incomplete. The bearing of the date of the building of Thasos on the determination of the age of Archilochus, may be, that it was built by Telesiclus his son.
 Called so because he sojourned at Athens. His birthplace was Acarnania.
 Another reading is Timotheos; Sylburgius conjectures Timoxenos.
 The text has Phuto, which Sylburgius conjectures has been changed from Putho.
 Plato's Theages, xi. p. 128.
 [Not to be lightly passed over. This whole paragraph is of value. Noah is the eighth preacher (2 Pet. ii. 5) of righteousness.]
 [The baptism of Jesus as distinguished from the baptism of repetance. John is clearly recognised, here, as of the old dispensation. John iv. 1.]
 [It is extraordinary that he fails to mention the blessed virgin and her Magnificat, the earliest Christian hymn; i.e., the first after the incarnation.]
 i.e., of Io, the daughter of Inachus.
 For Babulonos, Basileon has been substituted. In an old chronologist, as quoted by Clement elsewhere, the latter occurs; and the date of the expulsion of the kings harmonizes with the number of years here given, which that of the destruction of Babylon does not.
 Gen. xlvi. 27, Sept.
 [This assent to Plato's whim, on the part of our author, is suggestive.]
 [This assent to Plato's whim, on the part of our author, is suggestive.]
 Luke iii. 1, 2, 23.
 [A fair parallel to the amazing traditional statement of Irenaeus, and his objection to this very idea, vol. i. p. 391, this series. Isa. lxi. 1, 2.]
 [Mosheim, Christ. of First Three Cent., i. 432; and Josephus, Antiquities, ii. 14.]
 Dan. viii. 13, 14.
 Dan. xii. 12.
 Dan. xii. 11, 12.
 Matt. i. 17.
 [As to our author's chronology, see Elucidation XV., infra.]
Chapter XXII.--On the Greek Translation of the Old Testament.
So much for the details respecting dates, as stated variously by many,
and as set down by us.
It is said that the Scriptures both of the law and of the prophets were
translated from the dialect of the Hebrews into the Greek language in
the reign of Ptolemy the son of Lagos, or, according to others, of
Ptolemy surnamed Philadelphus; Demetrius Phalereus bringing to this
task the greatest earnestness, and employing painstaking accuracy on
the materials for the translation. For the Macedonians being still in
possession of Asia, and the king being ambitious of adorning the
library he had at Alexandria with all writings, desired the people of
Jerusalem to translate the prophecies they possessed into the Greek
dialect. And they being the subjects of the Macedonians, selected from
those of highest character among them seventy elders, versed in the
Scriptures, and skilled in the Greek dialect, and sent them to him with
the divine books. And each having severally translated each prophetic
book, and all the translations being compared together, they agreed
both in meaning and expression. For it was the counsel of God carried
out for the benefit of Grecian ears. It was not alien to the
inspiration of God, who gave the prophecy, also to produce the
translation, and make it as it were Greek prophecy. Since the
Scriptures having perished in the captivity of Nabuchodonosor, Esdras
 the Levite, the priest, in the time of Artaxerxes king of the
Persians, having become inspired in the exercise of prophecy restored
again the whole of the ancient Scriptures. And Aristobulus, in his
first book addressed to Philometor, writes in these words: "And Plato
followed the laws given to us, and had manifestly studied all that is
said in them." And before Demetrius there had been translated by
another, previous to the dominion of Alexander and of the Persians, the
account of the departure of our countrymen the Hebrews from Egypt, and
the fame of all that happened to them, and their taking possession of
the land, and the account of the whole code of laws; so that it is
perfectly clear that the above-mentioned philosopher derived a great
deal from this source, for he was very learned, as also Pythagoras, who
transferred many things from our books to his own system of doctrines.
And Numenius, the Pythagorean philosopher, expressly writes: "For what
is Plato, but Moses speaking in Attic Greek?" This Moses was a
theologian and prophet, and as some say, an interpreter of sacred laws.
His family, his deeds, and life, are related by the Scriptures
themselves, which are worthy of all credit; but have nevertheless to be
stated by us also as well as we can. 
 [The work of Ezra, as Clement testifies concerning it, adds immensely to the common ideas of his place in the history of the canon.]
 [Concerning the LXX., see cap. vii. p. 308, note 4, supra.]
Chapter XXIII.--The Age, Birth, and Life of Moses.
Moses, originally of a Chaldean  family, was born in Egypt, his
ancestors having migrated from Babylon into Egypt on account of a
protracted famine. Born in the seventh generation,  and having
received a royal education, the following are the circumstances of his
history. The Hebrews having increased in Egypt to a great multitude,
and the king of the country being afraid of insurrection in consequence
of their numbers, he ordered all the female children born to the
Hebrews to be reared (woman being unfit for war), but the male to be
destroyed, being suspicious of stalwart youth. But the child being
goodly, his parents nursed him secretly three months, natural affection
being too strong for the monarch's cruelty. But at last, dreading lest
they should be destroyed along with the child, they made a basket of
the papyrus that grew there, put the child in it, and laid it on the
banks of the marshy river. The child's sister stood at a distance, and
watched what would happen. In this emergency, the king's daughter, who
for a long time had not been pregnant, and who longed for a child, came
that day to the river to bathe and wash herself; and hearing the child
cry, she ordered it to be brought to her; and touched with pity, sought
a nurse. At that moment the child's sister ran up, and said that, if
she wished, she could procure for her as nurse one of the Hebrew women
who had recently had a child. And on her consenting and desiring her to
do so, she brought the child's mother to be nurse for a stipulated fee,
as if she had been some other person. Thereupon the queen gave the babe
the name of Moses, with etymological propriety, from his being drawn
out of "the water,"  --for the Egyptians call water "mou,"--in
which he had been exposed to die. For they call Moses one who "who
breathed [on being taken] from the water." It is clear that previously
the parents gave a name to the child on his circumcision; and he was
called Joachim. And he had a third name in heaven, after his ascension,
 as the mystics say--Melchi. Having reached the proper age, he
was taught arithmetic, geometry, poetry, harmony, and besides, medicine
and music, by those that excelled in these arts among the Egyptians;
and besides, the philosophy which is conveyed by symbols, which they
point out in the hieroglyphical inscriptions. The rest of the usual
course of instruction, Greeks taught him in Egypt as a royal child, as
Philo says in his life of Moses. He learned, besides, the literature of
the Egyptians, and the knowledge of the heavenly bodies from the
Chaldeans and the Egyptians; whence in the Acts  he is said "to
have been instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians." And
Eupolemus, in his book On the Kings in Judea, says that "Moses was the
first wise man, and the first that imparted grammar to the Jews, that
the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the
Phoenicians." And betaking himself to their philosophy,  he
increased his wisdom, being ardently attached to the training received
from his kindred and ancestors, till he struck and slew the Egyptian
who wrongfully attacked the Hebrew. And the mystics say that he slew
the Egyptian by a word only; as, certainly, Peter in the Acts is
related to have slain by speech those who appropriated part of the
price of the field, and lied.  And so Artapanus, in his work On
the Jews, relates "that Moses, being shut up in custody by Chenephres,
king of the Egyptians, on account of the people demanding to be let go
from Egypt, the prison being opened by night, by the interposition of
God, went forth, and reaching the palace, stood before the king as he
slept, and aroused him; and that the latter, struck with what had taken
place, bade Moses tell him the name of the God who had sent him; and
that he, bending forward, told him in his ear; and that the king on
hearing it fell speechless, but being supported by Moses, revived
again." And respecting the education of Moses, we shall find a
harmonious account in Ezekiel,  the composer of Jewish tragedies
in the drama entitled The Exodus. He thus writes in the person of
"For, seeing our race abundantly increase,
His treacherous snares King Pharaoh 'gainst us laid,
And cruelly in brick-kilns some of us,
And some, in toilsome works of building, plagued.
And towns and towers by toil of ill-starred men
He raised. Then to the Hebrew race proclaimed,
That each male child should in deep-flowing Nile
Be drowned. My mother bore and hid me then
Three months (so afterwards she told). Then took,
And me adorned with fair array, and placed
On the deep sedgy marsh by Nilus bank,
While Miriam, my sister, watched afar.
Then, with her maids, the daughter of the king,
To bathe her beauty in the cleansing stream,
Came near, straight saw, and took and raised me up;
And knew me for a Hebrew. Miriam
My sister to the princess ran, and said,
Is it thy pleasure, that I haste and find
A nurse for thee to rear this child
Among the Hebrew women?' The princess
Gave assent. The maiden to her mother sped,
And told, who quick appeared. My own
Dear mother took me in her arms. Then said
The daughter of the king: Nurse me this child,
And I will give thee wages.' And my name
Moses she called, because she drew and saved
Me from the waters on the river's bank.
And when the days of childhood had flown by,
My mother brought me to the palace where
The princess dwelt, after disclosing all
About my ancestry, and God's great gifts.
In boyhood's years I royal nurture had,
And in all princely exercise was trained,
As if the princess's very son. But when
The circling days had run their course,
I left the royal palace."
Then, after relating the combat between the Hebrew and the Egyptian,
and the burying of the Egyptian in the sand, he says of the other
"Why strike one feebler than thyself?
And he rejoined: Who made thee judge o'er us,
Or ruler? Wilt thou slay me, as thou didst
Him yesterday? And I in terror said,
How is this known?"
Then he fled from Egypt and fed sheep, being thus trained beforehand
for pastoral rule. For the shepherd's life is a preparation for
sovereignty in the case of him who is destined to rule over the
peaceful flock of men, as the chase for those who are by nature
warlike. Thence God brought him to lead the Hebrews. Then the
Egyptians, oft admonished, continued unwise; and the Hebrews were
spectators of the calamities that others suffered, learning in safety
the power of God. And when the Egyptians gave no heed to the effects of
that power, through their foolish infatuation disbelieving, then, as is
said, "the children knew" what was done; and the Hebrews afterwards
going forth, departed carrying much spoil from the Egyptians, not for
avarice, as the cavillers say, for God did not persuade them to covet
what belonged to others. But, in the first place, they took wages for
the services they had rendered the Egyptians all the time; and then in
a way recompensed the Egyptians, by afflicting them in requital as
avaricious, by the abstraction of the booty, as they had done the
Hebrews by enslaving them. Whether, then, as may be alleged is done in
war, they thought it proper, in the exercise of the rights of
conquerors, to take away the property of their enemies, as those who
have gained the day do from those who are worsted (and there was just
cause of hostilities. The Hebrews came as suppliants to the Egyptians
on account of famine; and they, reducing their guests to slavery,
compelled them to serve them after the manner of captives, giving them
no recompense); or as in peace, took the spoil as wages against the
will of those who for a long period had given them no recompense, but
rather had robbed them, [it is all one.]
 This is the account given by Philo, of whose book on the life of Moses this chapter is an epitome, for the most part in Philo's words.
 "He was the seventh in descent from the first, who, being a foreigner, was the founder of the whole Jewish race."--Philo.
 [See Ex. ii. 10.]
 [Concerning this, see Deut. xxxiii. 5. And as to "mystics," with caution, may be read advantageously, the article "Mysteries," Encyclop. Britann., vol. xxiii. p. 124.]
 Acts vii. 22.
 Adopting the reading philosophian aixas instead of phusin axas.
 Acts v. 1.
 [Eusebius, Praep Evang., ix. 4.]
Chapter XXIV.--How Moses Discharged the Part of a Military Leader.
Our Moses then is a prophet, a legislator, skilled in military tactics
and strategy, a politician, a philosopher. And in what sense he was a
prophet, shall be by and by told, when we come to treat of prophecy.
Tactics belong to military command, and the ability to command an army
is among the attributes of kingly rule. Legislation, again, is also one
of the functions of the kingly office, as also judicial authority.
Of the kingly office one kind is divine,--that which is according to
God and His holy Son, by whom both the good things which are of the
earth, and external and perfect felicity too, are supplied. "For," it
is said, "seek what is great, and the little things shall be added."
 And there is a second kind of royalty, inferior to that
administration which is purely rational and divine, which brings to the
task of government merely the high mettle of the soul; after which
fashion Hercules ruled the Argives, and Alexander the Macedonians. The
third kind is what aims after one thing--merely to conquer and
overturn; but to turn conquest either to a good or a bad purpose,
belongs not to such rule. Such was the aim of the Persians in their
campaign against Greece. For, on the one hand, fondness for strife is
solely the result of passion, and acquires power solely for the sake of
domination; while, on the other, the love of good is characteristic of
a soul which uses its high spirit for noble ends. The fourth, the worst
of all, is the sovereignty which acts according to the promptings of
the passions, as that of Sardanapalus, and those who propose to
themselves as their end the gratification of the passions to the
utmost. But the instrument of regal sway--the instrument at once of
that which overcomes by virtue, and that which does so by force--is the
power of managing (or tact). And it varies according to the nature and
the material. In the case of arms and of fighting animals the ordering
power is the soul and mind, by means animate and inanimate; and in the
case of the passions of the soul, which we master by virtue, reason is
the ordering power, by affixing the seal of continence and
self-restraint, along with holiness, and sound knowledge with truth,
making the result of the whole to terminate in piety towards God. For
it is wisdom which regulates in the case of those who so practice
virtue; and divine things are ordered by wisdom, and human affairs by
politics--all things by the kingly faculty. He is a king, then, who
governs according to the laws, and possesses the skill to sway willing
subjects. Such is the Lord, who receives all who believe on Him and by
Him. For the Father has delivered and subjected all to Christ our King,
"that at the name of Jesus every knee may bow, of things in heaven, and
things in earth, and things under the earth, and every tongue confess
that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." 
Now, generalship involves three ideas: caution, enterprise, and the
union of the two. And each of these consists of three things, acting as
they do either by word, or by deeds, or by both together. And all this
can be accomplished either by persuasion, or by compulsion, or by
inflicting harm in the way of taking vengeance on those who ought to be
punished; and this either by doing what is right, or by telling what is
untrue, or by telling what is true, or by adopting any of these means
conjointly at the same time.
Now, the Greeks had the advantage of receiving from Moses all these,
and the knowledge of how to make use of each of them. And, for the sake
of example, I shall cite one or two instances of leadership. Moses, on
leading the people forth, suspecting that the Egyptians would pursue,
left the short and direct route, and turned to the desert, and marched
mostly by night. For it was another kind of arrangement by which the
Hebrews were trained in the great wilderness, and for a protracted
time, to belief in the existence of one God alone, being inured by the
wise discipline of endurance to which they were subjected. The strategy
of Moses, therefore, shows the necessity of discerning what will be of
service before the approach of dangers, and so to encounter them. It
turned out precisely as he suspected, for the Egyptians pursued with
horses and chariots, but were quickly destroyed by the sea breaking on
them and overwhelming them with their horses and chariots, so that not
a remnant of them was left. Afterwards the pillar of fire, which
accompanied them (for it went before them as a guide), conducted the
Hebrews by night through an untrodden region, training and bracing
them, by toils and hardships, to manliness and endurance, that after
their experience of what appeared formidable difficulties, the benefits
of the land, to which from the trackless desert he was conducting them,
might become apparent. Furthermore, he put to flight and slew the
hostile occupants of the land, falling upon them from a desert and
rugged line of march (such was the excellence of his generalship). For
the taking of the land of those hostile tribes was a work of skill and
Perceiving this, Miltiades, the Athenian general, who conquered the
Persians in battle at Marathon, imitated it in the following fashion.
Marching over a trackless desert, he led on the Athenians by night, and
eluded the barbarians that were set to watch him. For Hippias, who had
deserted from the Athenians, conducted the barbarians into Attica, and
seized and held the points of vantage, in consequence of having a
knowledge of the ground. The task was then to elude Hippias. Whence
rightly Miltiades, traversing the desert and attacking by night the
Persians commanded by Dates, led his soldiers to victory.
But further, when Thrasybulus was bringing back the exiles from Phyla,
and wished to elude observation, a pillar became his guide as he
marched over a trackless region. To Thrasybulus by night, the sky being
moonless and stormy, a fire appeared leading the way, which, having
conducted them safely, left them near Munychia, where is now the altar
of the light-bringer (Phosphorus).
From such an instance, therefore, let our accounts become credible to
the Greeks, namely, that it was possible for the omnipotent God to make
the pillar of fire, which was their guide on their march, go before the
Hebrews by night. It is said also in a certain oracle,--
"A pillar to the Thebans is joy-inspiring Bacchus,"
from the history of the Hebrews. Also Euripides says, in Antiope,--
"In the chambers within, the herdsman,
With chaplet of ivy, pillar of the Evoean god."
The pillar indicates that God cannot be portrayed. The pillar of light,
too, in addition to its pointing out that God cannot be represented,
shows also the stability and the permanent duration of the Deity, and
His unchangeable and inexpressible light. Before, then, the invention
of the forms of images, the ancients erected pillars, and reverenced
them as statues of the Deity. Accordingly, he who composed the Phoronis
"Callithoe, key-bearer of the Olympian queen:
Argive Hera, who first with fillets and with fringes
The queen's tall column all around adorned."
Further, the author of Europia relates that the statue of Apollo at
Delphi was a pillar in these words:--
"That to the god first-fruits and tithes we may
On sacred pillars and on lofty column hang."
Apollo, interpreted mystically by "privation of many,"  means the
one God. Well, then, that fire like a pillar, and the fire in the
desert, is the symbol of the holy light which passed through from earth
and returned again to heaven, by the wood [of the cross], by which also
the gift of intellectual vision was bestowed on us.
 Not in Scripture. The reference may be to Matt. vi. 33.
 Phil. ii. 10, 11.
 a privative, and polloi, many.
Chapter XXV.--Plato an Imitator of Moses in Framing Laws.
Plato the philosopher, aided in legislation by the books of Moses,
censured the polity of Minos, and that of Lycurgus, as having bravery
alone as their aim; while he praised as more seemly the polity which
expresses some one thing, and directs according to one precept. For he
says that it becomes us to philosophize with strength, and dignity, and
wisdom,--holding unalterably the same opinions about the same things,
with reference to the dignity of heaven. Accordingly, therefore, he
interprets what is in the law, enjoining us to look to one God and to
do justly. Of politics, he says there are two kinds,--the department of
law, and that of politics, strictly so called.
And he refers to the Creator, as the Statesman (ho politikos) by way of
eminence, in his book of this name (ho politikos); and those who lead
an active and just life, combined with contemplation, he calls
statesmen (politikoi). That department of politics which is called
"Law," he divides into administrative magnanimity and private good
order, which he calls orderliness; and harmony, and sobriety, which are
seen when rulers suit their subjects, and subjects are obedient to
their rulers; a result which the system of Moses sedulously aims at
effecting. Further, that the department of law is founded on
generation, that of politics on friendship and consent, Plato, with the
aid he received, affirms; and so, coupled with the laws the philosopher
in the Epinomis, who knew the course of all generation, which takes
place by the instrumentality of the planets; and the other philosopher,
Timaeus, who was an astronomer and student of the motions of the stars,
and of their sympathy and association with one another, he consequently
joined to the "polity" (or "republic"). Then, in my opinion, the end
both of the statesman, and of him who lives according to the law, is
contemplation. It is necessary, therefore, that public affairs should
be rightly managed. But to philosophize is best. For he who is wise
will live concentrating all his energies on knowledge, directing his
life by good deeds, despising the opposite, and following the pursuits
which contribute to truth. And the law is not what is decided by law
(for what is seen is not vision), nor every opinion (not certainly what
is evil). But law is the opinion which is good, and what is good is
that which is true, and what is true is that which finds "true being,"
and attains to it. "He who is,"  says Moses, "sent me." In
accordance with which, namely, good opinion, some have called law,
right reason, which enjoins what is to be done and forbids what is not
to be done.
 "I AM," A.V.: Ex. iii. 14.
Chapter XXVI.--Moses Rightly Called a Divine Legislator, And, Though Inferior to Christ, Far Superior to the Great Legislators of the Greeks, Minos and Lycurgus.
Whence the law was rightly said to have been given by Moses, being a
rule of right and wrong; and we may call it with accuracy the divine
ordinance (thesmos  ), inasmuch as it was given by God through
Moses. It accordingly conducts to the divine. Paul says: "The law was
instituted because of transgressions, till the seed should come, to
whom the promise was made." Then, as if in explanation of his meaning,
he adds: "But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up,"
manifestly through fear, in consequence of sins, "unto the faith which
should afterwards be revealed; so that the law was a schoolmaster to
bring us to Christ, that we should be justified by faith."  The
true legislator is he who assigns to each department of the soul what
is suitable to it and to its operations. Now Moses, to speak
comprehensively, was a living law, governed by the benign Word.
Accordingly, he furnished a good polity, which is the right discipline
of men in social life. He also handled the administration of justice,
which is that branch of knowledge which deals with the correction of
transgressors in the interests of justice. Co-ordinate with it is the
faculty of dealing with punishments, which is a knowledge of the due
measure to be observed in punishments. And punishment, in virtue of its
being so, is the correction of the soul. In a word, the whole system of
Moses is suited for the training of such as are capable of becoming
good and noble men, and for hunting out men like them; and this is the
art of command. And that wisdom, which is capable of treating rightly
those who have been caught by the Word, is legislative wisdom. For it
is the property of this wisdom, being most kingly, to possess and use,
It is the wise man, therefore, alone whom the philosophers proclaim
king, legislator, general, just, holy, God-beloved. And if we discover
these qualities in Moses, as shown from the Scriptures themselves, we
may, with the most assured persuasion, pronounce Moses to be truly
wise. As then we say that it belongs to the shepherd's art to care for
the sheep; for so "the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep;"
 so also we shall say that legislation, inasmuch as it presides
over and cares for the flock of men, establishes the virtue of men, by
fanning into flame, as far as it can, what good there is in humanity.
And if the flock figuratively spoken of as belonging to the Lord is
nothing but a flock of men, then He Himself is the good Shepherd and
Lawgiver of the one flock, "of the sheep who hear Him," the one who
cares for them, "seeking," and finding by the law and the word, "that
which was lost;" since, in truth, the law is spiritual and leads to
felicity. For that which has arisen through the Holy Spirit is
spiritual. And he is truly a legislator, who not only announces what is
good and noble, but understands it. The law of this man who possesses
knowledge is the saving precept; or rather, the law is the precept of
knowledge. For the Word is "the power and the wisdom of God." 
Again, the expounder of the laws is the same one by whom the law was
given; the first expounder of the divine commands, who unveiled the
bosom of the Father, the only-begotten Son.
Then those who obey the law, since they have some knowledge of Him,
cannot disbelieve or be ignorant of the truth. But those who
disbelieve, and have shown a repugnance to engage in the works of the
law, whoever else may, certainly confess their ignorance of the truth.
What, then, is the unbelief of the Greeks? Is it not their
unwillingness to believe the truth which declares that the law was
divinely given by Moses, whilst they honour Moses in their own writers?
They relate that Minos received the laws from Zeus in nine years, by
frequenting the cave of Zeus; and Plato, and Aristotle, and Ephorus
write that Lycurgus was trained in legislation by going constantly to
Apollo at Delphi. Chamaeleo of Heraclea, in his book On Drunkenness,
and Aristotle in The Polity of Locrians, mention that Zaleucus the
Locrian received the laws from Athene.
But those who exalt the credit of Greek legislation as far as in them
lies, by referring it to a divine source, after the model of Mosaic
prophecy, are senseless in not owning the truth, and the archetype of
what is related among them.
 From the ancient derivation of this word from theos.
 Gal. iii. 19, 23, 24.
 John x. 11.
 1 Cor. i. 24.
Chapter XXVII.--The Law, Even in Correcting and Punishing, Aims at the Good of Men.
Let no, one then, run down law, as if, on account of the penalty, it
were not beautiful and good. For shall he who drives away bodily
disease appear a benefactor; and shall not he who attempts to deliver
the soul from iniquity, as much more appear a friend, as the soul is a
more precious thing than the body? Besides, for the sake of bodily
health we submit to incisions, and cauterizations, and medicinal
draughts; and he who administers them is called saviour and healer,
 even though amputating parts, not from grudge or ill-will
towards the patient, but as the principles of the art prescribe, so
that the sound parts may not perish along with them, and no one accuses
the physician's art of wickedness; and shall we not similarly submit,
for the soul's sake, to either banishment, or punishment, or bonds,
provided only from unrighteousness we shall attain to righteousness?
For the law, in its solicitude for those who obey, trains up to piety,
and prescribes what is to be done, and restrains each one from sins,
imposing penalties even on lesser sins.
But when it sees any one in such a condition as to appear incurable,
posting to the last stage of wickedness, then in its solicitude for the
rest, that they may not be destroyed by it (just as if amputating a
part from the whole body), it condemns such an one to death, as the
course most conducive to health. "Being judged by the Lord," says the
apostle, "we are chastened, that we may not be condemned with the
world."  For the prophet had said before, "Chastening, the Lord
hath chastised me, but hath not given me over unto death."  "For
in order to teach thee His righteousness," it is said, "He chastised
thee and tried thee, and made thee to hunger and thirst in the desert
land; that all His statutes and His judgments may be known in thy
heart, as I command thee this day; and that thou mayest know in thine
heart, that just as if a man were chastising his son, so the Lord our
God shall chastise thee." 
And to prove that example corrects, he says directly to the purpose: "A
clever man, when he seeth the wicked punished, will himself be severely
chastised, for the fear of the Lord is the source of wisdom." 
But it is the highest and most perfect good, when one is able to lead
back any one from the practice of evil to virtue and well-doing, which
is the very function of the law. So that, when one fails into any
incurable evil,--when taken possession of, for example, by wrong or
covetousness,--it will be for his good if he is put to death. For the
law is beneficent, being able to make some righteous from unrighteous,
if they will only give ear to it, and by releasing others from present
evils; for those who have chosen to live temperately and justly, it
conducts to immortality. To know the law is characteristic of a good
disposition. And again: "Wicked men do not understand the law; but they
who seek the Lord shall have understanding in all that is good." 
It is essential, certainly, that the providence which manages all, be
both supreme and good. For it is the power of both that dispenses
salvation--the one correcting by punishment, as supreme, the other
showing kindness in the exercise of beneficence, as a benefactor. It is
in your power not to be a son of disobedience, but to pass from
darkness to life, and lending your ear to wisdom, to be the legal slave
of God, in the first instance, and then to become a faithful servant,
fearing the Lord God. And if one ascend higher, he is enrolled among
But when "charity covers the multitude of sins,"  by the
consummation of the blessed hope, then may we welcome him as one who
has been enriched in love, and received into the elect adoption, which
is called the beloved of God, while he chants the prayer, saying, "Let
the Lord be my God."
The beneficent action of the law, the apostle showed in the passage
relating to the Jews, writing thus: "Behold, thou art called a Jew and
restest in the law, and makest thy boast in God, and knowest the will
of God, and approvest the things that are more excellent, being
instructed out of the law, and art confident that thou thyself art a
guide of the blind, a light of them who are in darkness, an instructor
of the foolish, a teacher of babes, who hast the form of knowledge and
of truth in the law."  For it is admitted that such is the power
of the law, although those whose conduct is not according to the law,
make a false pretence, as if they lived in the law. "Blessed is the man
that hath found wisdom, and the mortal who has seen understanding; for
out of its mouth," manifestly Wisdom's, "proceeds righteousness, and it
bears law and mercy on its tongue."  For both the law and the
Gospel are the energy of one Lord, who is "the power and wisdom of
God;" and the terror which the law begets is merciful and in order to
salvation. "Let not alms, and faith, and truth fail thee, but hang them
around thy neck."  In the same way as Paul, prophecy upbraids the
people with not understanding the law. "Destruction and misery are in
their ways, and the way of peace have they not known."  "There is
no fear of God before their eyes."  "Professing themselves wise,
they became fools."  "And we know that the law is good, if a man
use it lawfully."  "Desiring to be teachers of the law, they
understand," says the apostle, "neither what they say, nor whereof they
affirm."  "Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a
pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned." 
 [So, the Good Physician. Jer. viii. 22.]
 1 Cor. xi. 32.
 Ps. cxviii. 18.
 Deut. viii. 2, 3, 5.
 Prov. xxii. 3, 4.
 Prov. xxviii. 5.
 1 Pet. iv. 8.
 Rom. ii. 17-20.
 Prov. iii. 13, 16.
 Prov. iii. 3.
 Isa. lix. 7, 8; Rom. iii. 16, 17.
 Ps. xxxvi. 1; Rom. iii. 18.
 Rom. i. 22.
 1 Tim. i. 8.
 1 Tim. i. 7.
 1 Tim. i. 5.
Chapter XXVIII.--The Fourfold Division of the Mosaic Law.
The Mosaic philosophy is accordingly divided into four parts,--into the
historic, and that which is specially called the legislative, which two
properly belong to an ethical treatise; and the third, that which
relates to sacrifice, which belongs to physical science; and the
fourth, above all, the department of theology, "vision,"  which
Plato predicates of the truly great mysteries. And this species
Aristotle calls metaphysics. Dialectics, according to Plato, is, as he
says in The Statesman, a science devoted to the discovery of the
explanation of things. And it is to be acquired by the wise man, not
for the sake of saying or doing aught of what we find among men (as the
dialecticians, who occupy themselves in sophistry, do), but to be able
to say and do, as far as possible, what is pleasing to God. But the
true dialectic, being philosophy mixed with truth, by examining things,
and testing forces and powers, gradually ascends in relation to the
most excellent essence of all, and essays to go beyond to the God of
the universe, professing not the knowledge of mortal affairs, but the
science of things divine and heavenly; in accordance with which follows
a suitable course of practice with respect to words and deeds, even in
human affairs. Rightly, therefore, the Scripture, in its desire to make
us such dialecticians, exhorts us: "Be ye skilful money-changers"
 rejecting some things, but retaining what is good. For this true
dialectic is the science which analyses the objects of thought, and
shows abstractly and by itself the individual substratum of existences,
or the power of dividing things into genera, which descends to their
most special properties, and presents each individual object to be
contemplated simply such as it is.
Wherefore it alone conducts to the true wisdom, which is the divine
power which deals with the knowledge of entities as entities, which
grasps what is perfect, and is freed from all passion; not without the
Saviour, who withdraws, by the divine word, the gloom of ignorance
arising from evil training, which had overspread the eye of the soul,
and bestows the best of gifts,--
"That we might well know or God or man." 
It is He who truly shows how we are to know ourselves. It is He who
reveals the Father of the universe to whom He wills, and as far as
human nature can comprehend. "For no man knoweth the Son but the
Father, nor the Father but the Son, and he to whom the Son shall reveal
Him."  Rightly, then, the apostle says that it was by revelation
that he knew the mystery: "As I wrote afore in few words, according as
ye are able to understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ."
 "According as ye are able," he said, since he knew that some had
received milk only, and had not yet received meat, nor even milk
simply. The sense of the law is to be taken in three ways, 
--either as exhibiting a symbol, or laying down a precept for right
conduct, or as uttering a prophecy. But I well know that it belongs to
men [of full age] to distinguish and declare these things. For the
whole Scripture is not in its meaning a single Myconos, as the
proverbial expression has it; but those who hunt after the connection
of the divine teaching, must approach it with the utmost perfection of
the logical faculty.
 epopteia, the third and highest grade of initation into the mysteries.
 A saying not in Scripture; but by several of the ancient Fathers attributed to Christ or an apostle. [Jones, Canon, i. 438.]
 "That thou may'st well know whether he be a god or a man."--Homer.
 Matt. xi. 27.
 Eph. iii. 3, 4.
 The text has tetrachos, which is either a mistake for trichos, or belongs to a clause which is wanting. The author asserts the triple sense of Scripture,--the mystic, the moral, and the prophetic. [And thus lays the egg which his pupil Origen was to hatch, and to nurse into a brood of mysticism.]
Chapter XXIX.--The Greeks But Children Compared with the Hebrews.
Whence most beautifully the Egyptian priest in Plato said, "O Solon,
Solon, you Greeks are always children, not having in your souls a
single ancient opinion received through tradition from antiquity. And
not one of the Greeks is an old man;"  meaning by old, I suppose,
those who know what belongs to the more remote antiquity, that is, our
literature; and by young, those who treat of what is more recent and
made the subject of study by the Greeks,--things of yesterday and of
recent date as if they were old and ancient. Wherefore he added, "and
no study hoary with time;" for we, in a kind of barbarous way, deal in
homely and rugged metaphor. Those, therefore, whose minds are rightly
constituted approach the interpretation utterly destitute of artifice.
And of the Greeks, he says that their opinions "differ but little from
myths." For neither puerile fables nor stories current among children
are fit for listening to. And he called the myths themselves
"children," as if the progeny of those, wise in their own conceits
among the Greeks, who had but little insight; meaning by the "hoary
studies" the truth which was possessed by the barbarians, dating from
the highest antiquity. To which expression he opposed the phrase "child
fable," censuring the mythical character of the attempts of the
moderns, as, like children, having nothing of age in them, and
affirming both in common--their fables and their speeches--to be
Divinely, therefore, the power which spoke to Hermas by revelation
said, "The visions and revelations are for those who are of double
mind, who doubt in their hearts if these things are or are not." 
Similarly, also, demonstrations from the resources of erudition,
strengthen, confirm, and establish demonstrative reasonings, in so far
as men's minds are in a wavering state like young people's. "The good
commandment," then, according to the Scripture, "is a lamp, and the law
is a light to the path; for instruction corrects the ways of life."
 "Law is monarch of all, both of mortals and of immortals," says
Pindar. I understand, however, by these words, Him who enacted law. And
I regard, as spoken of the God of all, the following utterance of
Hesiod, though spoken by the poet at random and not with
"For the Saturnian framed for men this law:
Fishes, and beasts, and winged birds may eat
Each other, since no rule of right is theirs;
But Right (by far the best) to men he gave."
Whether, then, it be the law which is connate and natural, or that
given afterwards, which is meant, it is certainly of God; and both the
law of nature and that of instruction are one. Thus also Plato, in The
Statesman, says that the lawgiver is one; and in The Laws, that he who
shall understand music is one; teaching by these words that the Word is
one, and God is one. And Moses manifestly calls the Lord a covenant:
"Behold I am my Covenant with thee,"  having previously told him
not to seek the covenant in writing.  For it is a covenant which
God, the Author of all, makes. For God is called Theos, from thesis
(placing), and order or arrangement. And in the Preaching  of
Peter you will find the Lord called Law and Word. But at this point,
let our first Miscellany  of gnostic notes, according to the true
philosophy, come to a close.
 [Timaeus, p. 22, B.--S.]
 [See Shepherd of Hermas, i. p. 14, ante. S.]
 Prov. vi. 23.
 Gen. xvii. 4. "As for me, behold, My convenant is with thee."--A.V.
 The allusion here is obscure. The suggestion has been made that
it is to ver. 2 of the same chapter, which is thus taken to intimate
that the covenant would be verbal, not written.
 Referring to an apocryphal book so called. [This book is not cited as Scripture, but (valeat quantum) as containing a saying attributed to St. Peter. Clement quotes it not infrequently. A very full and valuable account of it may be found in Lardner, vol. ii. p. 252, et seqq. Not less valuable is the account given by Jones, On the Canon, vol. i. p. 355. See all Clement's citations, same volume, p. 345, et seqq.]
The Pastor of Hermas - Introductions
The Pastor of Hermas: Book 1
The Pastor of Hermas: Book 2
The Pastor of Hermas: Book 3
Tatian the Assyrian's Address to the Greeks
Fragments - Tatian the Assyrian
Theophilus of Antioch - Introduction
Theophilus of Antioch to Autolycus: Book 1
Theophilus of Antioch to Autolycus: Book 2
Theophilus of Antioch to Autolycus: Book 3
A Plea for Christians by Athenagoras the Athenian: Philosopher and Christian
The Treatise of Athenagoras the Athenian, Philosopher and Christian, on the Resurrection of the Dead
Clement of Alexandria - Introductory Note
Exhortation to the Heathen
The Instructor (Paedagogus) - Book 1
The Instructor (Paedagogus) - Book 2
The Instructor (Paedagogus) - Book 3
Elucidations - Clement of Alexandria
The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 1
Elucidations - Purpose of the Stromata
The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 2
Elucidations - The Stromata, Book 2
The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 3
The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 4
Elucidations - The Stromata, Book 4
The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 5
Elucidations - The Stromata, Book 5
The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 6
Elucidations - The Stromata, Book 6
The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 7
Elucidations - The Stromata, Book 7
The Stromata, or Miscellanies - Book 8
Elucidations - The Stromata, Book 8
Fragments of Clemens Alexandrinus
Clemens Alexandrinus on the Salvation of the Rich Man
Elucidations - Clemens Alexandrinus on the Salvation of the Rich Man
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